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PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of New School of Thought

History and Influence of the New School of Thought

The school of thought in psychology has provided thoughts and beliefs associated with human intelligence, performance, culture, environment, learning behaviors, and social interactions. Numerous new schools of thought have been created in modern times, including environmental psychology, feminist psychology, African/black psychology, behavioral genetics, etc. This paper will elucidate the historical growth and impact of feminist psychology.

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of New School of Thought

Founding Figures, Events, and Ideas of the School of Thought

Feminist psychology is a domain of psychology developed in the 1960s and 1970s as a component of the most significant movement regarding feminism. It targets to state the downgrading and oppression of womankind in psychology and community on a greater level (Wypych, 2022).

Founding figures

Jean Baker Miller is one of the oldest and most significant characters in feminist psychology, who published “Toward a New Psychology of Women.” in 1976. Other prominent personalities in creating feminist psychology involve Nancy Chodorow, Carol Gilligan, Sandra Bem, and Mary Belenky. 


The declaration of Betty Friedan’s book “The Feminine Mystique” in 1963 is frequently considered an opening point for the feminist movement in the US. This movement precipitated interest in studying women’s experiences and worked for emerging feminist psychology. In 1973, the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP) was created to deliver an environment for feminist psychologists to cooperate and share their studies (Borzoueian & Motesaddei, 2021).


One of the fundamental ideas of feminist psychology is that gender is a societal norm, not a biological one. Feminist psychologists claim that gender responsibilities and potentials are learned via socialization and can differ across values and historical times. Another chief idea is that outdated psychological concepts and approaches are partial toward men and do not sufficiently apprehend women’s experiences. Feminist psychologists focus on learning women’s experiences and opinions and how prejudice and oppression influence women’s psychological health and well-being. They also encourage a more cooperative and democratic method of therapying, which includes recognizing and appreciating the customer’s proficiency and authorizing them to take an influential role in their recovery (Borzoueian & Motesaddei, 2021).

Feminist psychologists have established a variety of innovative theories and approaches designed to apprehend the experiences of women and other disregarded groups. For instance, they have advanced theories of relational-cultural therapy, focusing on the significance of associations and networks for mental health. They have also established innovative approaches to studying gender and power dynamics in interactive relationships (Borzoueian & Motesaddei, 2021). 

Moreover, feminist psychology is an analytical and active field that challenges outdated psychological theories and approaches and obtains a more precise and inclusive understanding of human psychology. It is driven by essential principles and ideas highlighting social justice, diversity, and the significance of associations and relationships in influencing the welfare of individual and cooperative well-being.

Historical and Societal Influences

The establishment of feminist psychology was affected by different historical aspects, including the women’s rights movement, second-wave feminism, and the social and cultural modifications of the 1960s and 1970s (DeBlaere et al., 2019).

The most crucial effect on the creation of feminist psychology was the women’s rights movement started in the late 19th century and sustained all over the 20th century. The movement intended to protect equivalent rights for females, including the right to vote, work, and attain education. This movement developed a stage for women to discuss their experiences and ask for communal change. Feminist psychoanalysts illustrated the ideas of movement and values to challenge outmoded theories that disregarded or reduced women’s experiences (DeBlaere et al., 2019).

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of New School of Thought

The second-wave feminist movement, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, also considerably influenced feminist psychology. This movement emphasized the problems, including generative rights, equivalent salaries, and the depiction of women in social platforms. Feminist psychologists were affected by the second-wave feminist movement’s focus on social justice and impartiality and worked to challenge sexism and gender disparity within psychology as a discipline (Loney-Howes, 2019).

The social and economic modifications of the 1960s and 1970s also played a vital role in developing feminist psychology. These variations involved the increase in the counterculture movement, which challenged outdated gender responsibilities and sustained individual expressions. Feminist psychologists illustrated these cultural changes by questioning the old-fashioned assumptions of psychology, which frequently disseminated gender stereotypes and inequity (Medina et al., 2020).

Several instances that intensely sustain the historical examination of feminist psychology involve the efforts of Carol Gilligan, who confronted the androcentric model of psychology by focusing on the essentiality of relationships and emotion in the development of females. Another example is Sandra Bem, who established the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, which confronted the dual concept of gender by assessing individual gender qualities and behaviors on a continuum instead of either male or female (Medina et al., 2020). 

How This School of Thought Guides Social Thinking

Feminist psychology is a method that pursues to comprehend and state how gender and other communal disparity influence patients’ psychological health, behavior, and safety. Feminist psychologists are involved in analyzing how societal, ethnic, and fiscal aspects relate to gender for shaping people’s experiences and the broader communal background they belong (McCormick-Huhn et al., 2019).

One way that feminist psychology directs communal thinking is by confronting traditional gender responsibilities and stereotypes. Feminist psychologists claim that gender responsibilities and stereotypes are communally developed and frequently result in detrimental outcomes for people, especially women (McCormick-Huhn et al., 2019). For instance, the stereotype that females are sensitive and irrational can cause them to be terminated or unrecognized in an organizational setting. By stimulating these stereotypes, feminist psychology lets people think analytically regarding the roles of genders and stereotypes influencing their insights and activities.

Feminist psychology also focuses on the significance of reflecting intersectionality in communal thinking. Intersectionality is defined as how varied kinds of domination, like discrimination, ableism, and homophobia, interconnect with gender to develop people’s experiences. For instance, a black lady would face discernment and marginalization on a grander scale, contrasting that of a white woman or a black man. By identifying the intersectionality of various kinds of dominance, feminist psychology inspires people to think widely regarding the influence of social disparities on peoples’ lives (McCormick-Huhn et al., 2019). 

Feminist psychologists claim that universal disparities and discrimination are the primary causes of numerous psychological health issues and other problems. This includes feminist psychology underlines the essentiality of communal and ethical action for stating these concerns. For instance, feminist psychoanalysts might promote policies that uphold equivalent salaries for female workers like male employees, approach to generative healthcare, and fortifications contrary to biased violence (Churchwell et al., 2020).

Feminist psychology leads social thinking by confronting outdated gender responsibilities and stereotypes, highlighting intersectionality, and encouraging communal changes. This can assist in establishing a more equitable and just community for each individual despite their race, culture, beliefs, and traditions. McCormick-Huhn et al., 2019 and Loney-Howes, 2019 are the two credible scholarly journals that deliver a clear explanation concerning Feminist psychology by sustaining the rights and authority of women despite any discrimination. 


Feminist psychology has affected the thoughts and perceptions of people and brought several amendments to the existing systems of culture by providing equitable opportunities to female community members. Gender-associated discrimination and plummeted rights have promoted several movements to encourage women’s empowerment and preserve women’s rights in a community. Numerous psychologists made significant participations while developing this framework for women’s rights.

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 4 History and Influence of New School of Thought


Borzoueian, M., & Motesaddei, F. (2021). Explaining female identity in the short story “lenge be lengeha” based on Karen Horney’s theory. Fiction Studies, 7(1), 69–86. https://doi.org/10.30473/pl.2021.60945.1592

Churchwell, K., Elkind, M. S. V., Benjamin, R. M., Carson, A. P., Chang, E. K., Lawrence, W., Mills, A., Odom, T. M., Rodriguez, C. J., Rodriguez, F., Sanchez, E., Sharrief, A. Z., Sims, M., & Williams, O. (2020). Call to action: Structural racism as a fundamental driver of health disparities: a presidential advisory from the American heart association. Circulation, 142(24). https://doi.org/10.1161/cir.0000000000000936 

DeBlaere, C., Singh, A. A., Wilcox, M. M., Cokley, K. O., Delgado-Romero, E. A., Scalise, D. A., & Shawahin, L. (2019). Social justice in counseling psychology: Then, now, and looking forward. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(6), 938–962. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000019893283

Loney-Howes, R. (2019). The politics of the personal: The evolution of anti-rape activism from second-wave feminism to #MeToo. #MeToo and the Politics of Social Change, 21–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15213-0_2

McCormick-Huhn, K., Warner, L. R., Settles, I. H., & Shields, S. A. (2019). What if psychology took intersectionality seriously? Changing how psychologists think about participants. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 43(4), 036168431986643. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684319866430

Medina, L., Sabo, S., & Vespa, J. (2020). Population estimates and projections current population reports. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1145.pdf

Wypych, V. (2022). We are more than just spectators: Feminist psychology theory applied to sports psychology. Honors Projects in Applied Psychology. https://digitalcommons.bryant.edu/honors_appliedpsychology/28/

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