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PSYC FPX 3500 Assessment 2 Cognitive Psychology Paper


Students learning is a vital component for teachers, and to improve their performance and learning capabilities, they employ different strategies. In order to enhance their learning processes, teachers used different evidence-based strategies for effective educational outcomes for students and schools. In this regard, learning style theory provides a significant guide for teachers to enhance their student’s learning processes.

PSYC FPX 3500 Assessment 2 Cognitive Psychology Paper

Different learning models such as Fleming VAK, Kolb learning model, and 4MAT, along with the Felder-Silverman learning model, pathways for teachers to improve the cognitive skills of their students. However, different research resources, including Shirazi and Heidari and Mozaffari et al., opposed the significant impact of learning processes on the student’s academic outcomes. Furthermore, this paper highlights the room for discussion on the reliable and valid instrument used for measuring the effectiveness of the learning model process on the student’s academic performance. 

Keywords: Learning style theory, research methods, academic performance, students, cognitive and learning processes 

Learning Assessment

The learning assessment provides a framework with justified resources on employing effective models and strategies to improve the cognitive and learning process of the students. The models are discussed with the justification of scholarly resources to guide effective measures for teachers to improve student performance and school outcomes. 

Theory or Model for Learning Processes 

The learning style theory focuses on the learning capabilities of individuals using their cognitive skills and abilities. The learning style theory highlights articulating the information using three learning styles: audio, visualization, and tactics to store data and knowledge. Different experts further effectively utilize the postulates of learning techniques theory to drive learning models for a better understanding and concepts. The model for learning processes includes the 4MAT learning style model, which focuses on learning through mental capabilities, innovation and brainstorming and the implications of brain dominancy theory for education (Aydintan et al., 2020). 

The Felder-Silverman learning model facilitates learning through the personality characteristics of individuals. It mainly includes personality traits such as visual or verbal, inductive or deductive, active or reflective, sensitive or intuitive, and sequential or global. All these traits effectively help the learning process of individuals (Supangat & Saringat, 2022). The other model includes the Kolb learning style model is a two-dimensional model that is based on how people perceive information (concrete vs abstract) and how effectively they process information (active vs reflective) to assist their learning processes (Shirazi & Heidari, 2019). 

Similarly, the Honey-Mumford model is based on the learning process of four major categories for learners: activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist. Fleming VAK (visual, audio, and kinesthetic) model is one of the most commonly used learning process models. VAK model provides simple ways to explain and understand the learning styles. This model’s three major learning process categories include Visual, auditory, and Kinesthetic. All these elements facilitate the learning process by actively utilising the cognitive abilities of the individuals using graphical representation, audio and personal experiences (Mozaffari et al., 2020). 

PSYC FPX 3500 Assessment 2 Cognitive Psychology Paper

Examples Of How A Theory or Model Impacts Learning 

The learning style theory aims to facilitate the cognitive abilities of individuals to improve their academic performance. Following the theory’s postulates, İlcine et al. (2018) performed their research analysis on the impact of learning styles on the student’s academic performance research highlighted the student actively utilizes that participant’s learning style. The cognitive abilities positively improve the academic performance of the students. However, the theoretical implications of the theory support positive impacts on the students’ academic performance. Contrary to this information, Shirazi and Heidari (2019) analysed the impact of learning style models on academic performance. The research analyzes the impact of Kolb’s learning style on academic performance along with academic guides provided to the. The results highlighted no impact of learning styles on academic performance, whereas teachers’ guidance and proper educational support improved cognitive abilities and academic performance. 

Following the learning model of VAK guidelines, the model provides the effectiveness of cognitive abilities in improved student performance. In contrast to these assumptions, Mozaffari et al. (2020) performed a research analysis on learning style and its impact on academic performance. The research analyzed the VAK (visual, audio, and Kinesthetic) model to investigate the impact of visual learning style, audio and writing styles, and the kinesthetic learning model on academic performance. The results concluded no significant relationship between the learning style model and the student’s academic performance. 

Description of the Research Methods Used In the Sources Cited and Their Appropriateness 

 Different research sources are cited to justify the learning style models and theory. Mozaffari et al. (2020) provide in-depth justification for the effectiveness of the VAK learning model on the development of student’s cognitive skills and learning capabilities in their academic performance. The research further investigated the application of each model in the student’s academic learning using qualitative research methods with the direct participation of the students in the research. Therefore, this research method is appropriate and justified for this research analysis as it provides justification and students’ viewpoint on the learning model and its implications on their learning processes. 

İlcine et al. (2018) performed a cross-sectional research analysis on the learning process model to analyze the impact on academic performance. This research method used questionnaire techniques to analyze the learning process model through student participation. The participant was asked to share their opinion on the participant and collaborative learning process and their impact on academic performance. This source is justified for the present research discussion as it analyzed the participant learning model through the students’ cognitive abilities in their learning process. The information significantly guides the present research on learning and individual traits in effective learning processes. 

Shirazi and Heidari (2019) further performed a cross-sectional analysis of the Kolb learning process model to measure its effectiveness on students’ academic growth. The research methods provide an effective analysis of this learning process model by utilizing the present experience of the students, which is significantly helpful for the present discussion on cognitive abilities and learning processes.  

Strengths and Limitations of the Theoretical Prospective 

The strength of the learning theory is the in-depth and evaluative guide to the teachers to improve the student’s cognitive and learning abilities. The resources highlighted that learning process models, along with the proper academic support, effectively improve the students’ cognitive capabilities and learning processes (Shirazi & Heidari, 2019). 

The limitation of the research on learning theory and models is the low reliability of the questionnaires used for cross-sectional analysis. The research used a learning theory scale whose reliability and validity are less than 0.8, which is acceptable but low reliability of the source to use for future research (İlçin et al., 2018). 


Learning style theory provides in-depth analysis and justification for the effective cognitive abilities that facilitate the learning process within individuals. The research supports its effectiveness; however, some sources justify this theoretical contribution’s lack of significant outcome. The research provides significant guides for teachers to improve student learning and highlights limitations for future researchers to fulfill for effective outcomes and discussion. 

PSYC FPX 3500 Assessment 2 Cognitive Psychology Paper


Aydintan, S., Şahi̇nH., & Uysal, F. (2020). The effect of the 4MAT learning style model on academic achievement and permanence while teaching “fractions.” 1(23), 408-427. https://acikerisim.mehmetakif.edu.tr/xmlui/handle/11672/3362 

İlçin, N., Tomruk, M., Yeşilyaprak, S. S., Karadibak, D., & Savcı, S. (2018). The relationship between learning styles and academic performance in TURKISH physiotherapy students. BMC Medical Education, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1400-2 

Mozaffari, H. R., Janatolmakan, M., Sharifi, R., Ghandinejad, F., Andayeshgar, B., & Khatony, A. (2020). The relationship between the VAK learning styles and academic achievement in dental students. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 11, 15–19. https://doi.org/10.2147/amep.s235002 

Shirazi, F., & Heidari, S. (2019). The relationship between critical thinking skills and learning styles and academic achievement of nursing students. Journal of Nursing Research, 27(4), 38. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0000000000000307 

Supangat, & Saringat, M. Z. B. (2022, December 1). A systematic literature review enhanced Felder Silverman learning style models (FSLSM). IEEE Xplore. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIC56845.2022.10006958

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