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PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Emotion, Stress, and Health Sample:

PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Emotion, Stress, and Health

Insomnia and its Effects

Insomnia is a sleep issue because of which patients face difficulty in sleeping. Different factors like stress, depression, physical illness, etc. cause sleeping disorders. Quantity as well as quality of sleep is affected by the issue mentioned above. It is 2% to 25% prevalent around the globe (Yun & Jo, 2021). Insomnia affects a patient’s physical and mental health in the following ways:

Along with issues with sleep initiation and maintenance, insomnia also has a broad aftereffect on the body as well as the mind. Distress and cognitive disability in a variety of mental aspects are both effects of insomnia. The risk of certain illnesses, including major depression and Alzheimer’s dementia, is also increased by chronic sleeplessness (de Zambotti et al., 2022).

PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Emotion, Stress, and Health

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 However, insomnia is not just restricted to these neuropsychiatric conditions; it also affects several physiological systems, including the immunological, endocrine, and circulatory systems, and raises the risk of several illnesses, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and infection. Since the process of sleep is a very intricate, dynamic, and universally biological phenomenon, insomnia is regarded as a systemic illness (Yun & Jo, 2021).

Impact of Insomnia on Physical and Mental Health According to Literature

Insomnia affects the cognitive functions of humans including concentration, memory, attention, etc. Irregular sleep causes an increase in cortisol levels leading to stress and anxiety. It is reported that insomnia patients lack attention and concentration as compared to the control group (Brownlow et al., 2020).

Insomnia is directly linked with emotion regulation. Sleep-deprived people have more negative emotions, aggression, stress, and anxiety. Studies showed that insomnia patients have heart rate variability causing the disturbance in emotion regulation (Vanek et al., 2020).

In addition to cognitive functions and emotion regulation, insomnia also causes neuropsychiatric disorders. Research shows that people suffering from insomnia are more likely to get depression as compared to normal ones. Suicidal thoughts are also a subject in insomnia patients without any mental disorder (Janda et al., 2020). Moreover, Insomnia increases the risk of dementia. Research shows that the amount of beta-amyloid is decreased in insomnia patients causing dementia because beta-amyloid is secreted during sleeping (Irwin & Vitiello, 2019). 

PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Emotion, Stress, and Health

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Physiological activities like heart rate, phasic vasoconstriction, skin barriers, etc. that are controlled by the autonomic nervous system are affected by sleep deprivation. The endocrine system is also affected by insomnia leading to many issues like insulin resistance (Brouwer et al., 2021).

Furthermore, sleep and the immune system are interrelated because cytokines are involved in sleep during non-rapid eye movement. Insomnia alters the number of cytokines leading to a weak immune system, inflammation, and even death in chronic cases. As insomnia causes increased heart rate and changes in blood pressure so literature shows that lack of proper sleep causes cardiac issues and high blood pressure. According to research, sleep-deprived people are at greater risk of respiratory tract infections and cancers of the thyroid, breast, etc. (Poluektov, 2021).

Interventions to Reduce the Effects of Insomnia

In the initial stages, insomnia can be treated by just changing the sleep schedule and by eliminating its causes like stress or any other medical issue. The following interventions can be used to reduce insomnia and its leading effects if the above-mentioned remedies do not work. 

PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Emotion, Stress, and Health

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Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia can help in reducing insomnia without any medication (Rossman, 2019). This therapy is a combination of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy. According to research, behavioral therapy will help to eliminate the behaviors that hinder sleep and acquire those that help in sleeping well (Asarnow & Manber, 2019). Behavioral therapy includes; stimulus control, staying awake passively, relaxation methods, sleep restriction, etc. 

PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4  Emotion, Stress, and Health

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  • Stimulus control therapy involves removing the stimulus that hinders the normal sleeping method. 
  • Staying awake passively during bed without worrying about sleep will help a person to sleep early. Because when a person tries to sleep it becomes a tension for him.
  • Relaxation methods include light exercise, yoga, and any other breathing exercise that will help to sleep well.
  • Sleep restriction involves restricting daytime naps and reduced bedtime. It reduces the quantity of sleep but enhances the quality of sleep. After sometimes sleep time will also improve.

Cognitive therapy for insomnia works on the mind to eliminate depression, anxiety, and negative thoughts that hinder normal sleep patterns (Espie et al., 2019). 

Conclusion

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that has negative impacts on physical and mental health. Various sleep-stimulating medications and cognitive therapies are used for treating insomnia. This therapy will help in improving the mental and physical well-being of people suffering from insomnia. 

PSYC FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Emotion, Stress, and Health

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References 

Asarnow, L. D., & Manber, R. (2019). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in depression. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 14(2), 177–184.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2019.01.009

Brouwer, A., van Raalte, D. H., Lamers, F., Rutters, F., Elders, Petra. J. M., Van Someren, Eus. J. W., Snoek, Frank. J., Beekman, Aartjan. T. F., & Bremmer, M. A. (2021). Insulin resistance as a marker for the immune-metabolic subtype of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 295, 1371–1376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.151

Brownlow, J. A., Miller, K. E., & Gehrman, P. R. (2020). Insomnia and cognitive performance. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 15(1), 71–76.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2019.10.002

de Zambotti, M., Yuksel, D., Kiss, O., Barresi, G., Arra, N., Volpe, L., King, C., & Baker, F. C. (2022). A virtual reality-based mind-body approach to downregulate psychophysiological arousal in adolescent insomnia. DIGITAL HEALTH, 8, 205520762211078. https://doi.org/10.1177/20552076221107887

Espie, C. A., Emsley, R., Kyle, S. D., Gordon, C., Drake, C. L., Siriwardena, A. N., Cape, J., Ong, J. C., Sheaves, B., Foster, R., Freeman, D., Costa-Font, J., Marsden, A., & Luik, A. I. (2019). Effect of digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia on health, psychological well-being, and sleep-related quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.2745

Irwin, M. R., & Vitiello, M. V. (2019). Implications of sleep disturbance and inflammation for Alzheimer’s disease dementia. The Lancet Neurology, 18(3), 296–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(18)30450-2

Janda, K., Wojtkowska, K., Jakubczyk, K., Antoniewicz, J., & Skonieczna-Żydecka, K. (2020). Passiflora incarnata in neuropsychiatric disorders—a systematic review. Nutrients, 12(12), 3894.https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123894

Poluektov, M. G. (2021). Sleep and immunity. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 51(5), 609–615. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11055-021-01113-2

Rossman, J. (2019). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia: an effective and underutilized treatment for insomnia. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 13(6), 544–547. https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827619867677

Vanek, J., Prasko, J., Genzor, S., Ociskova, M., Holubova, M., Sova, M., Kantor, K., Slepecky, M., & Nesnidal, V. (2020). Insomnia and emotion regulation. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 41(5), 255–269. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33315339/

Yoshikawa, F., Shigiyama, F., Ando, Y., Miyagi, M., Uchino, H., Hirose, T., & Kumashiro, N. (2020). Chronotherapeutic efficacy of suvorexant on sleep quality and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes and insomnia. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 169, 108412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108412

Yun, S., & Jo, S. (2021). Understanding insomnia as a systemic disease. Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine, 38(4), 267–274. https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.01424

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