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PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues:

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Contemporary Social Issues

Abortion is one of today’s most contentious issues. It refers to ending a pregnancy by removing the fetus from the uterus. The problem is complicated and varied, with several perspectives and opinions. The twentieth-century sexual revolution sparked different viewpoints and disputes, notably around abortion. The Catholic Church has historically opposed abortion, as indicated by the Vatican’s specific directive issued in 1987 and its strong stance during the 1994 Cairo Conference. Similarly, most nations oppose abortion and family planning (Vogelstein & Turkington, 2022). In comparison, Protestant and Orthodox countries are more tolerant. It is estimated that over 60 million abortions occur each year worldwide.

Importance of Abortion from Multiple Viewpoints

Abortion is a significant modern societal problem with many implications and perspectives. It concerns people’s basic freedom to make decisions about their own lives, including the option to abort a pregnancy. This is about personal autonomy and individual freedom, which are fundamental in a democratic society. Abortion also raises health problems. The importance of safe and legal abortion for women’s reproductive health cannot be emphasized (The PLOS Medicine Editors, 2022). 

Abortion highlights additional concerns, such as gender equality; women have been denied abortion choices and control over their lives from the start. Women from low-income and minority backgrounds are more likely to suffer the consequences of abortion restrictions because they have limited access to healthcare and face extra barriers to accessing safe and legal abortions (American Psychological Association, 2022). Furthermore, abortion is a contentious issue with serious political and societal ramifications.

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

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Conflicting Perspectives Regarding Abortion

On the one hand, persons offering their ideas on abortion believe that women have the right to make decisions about their own life. They argue that access to legal and safe abortion is critical for women’s reproductive health and self-determination. Furthermore, they contend that abortion should be available in cases of rape, incest, or if the pregnancy endangers the woman’s bodily or mental health. They believe that restricting abortion availability would violate women’s rights and result in unsafe, illegal abortions (World Health Organization, 2024).

On the contrary, opponents of abortion argue that it is a vile act that disregards the sacredness of human life. They believe that life begins at conception and that the fetus has the right to life. They also argue that abortion is harmful to women’s psychological and physical health and that alternatives such as adoption should be considered. They feel that abortion restrictions are necessary to protect the interests of unborn children (World Health Organization, 2024).

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Ultimately, there are groups of individuals that take a balanced stance, acknowledging the complexities of the issue. They think that, while abortion should be legal and accessible, further efforts should be taken to reduce the number of abortions by supporting sex education, giving access to contraception, and assisting pregnant mothers. They feel that lowering the demand for abortions through prevention and assistance is preferable to restricting access (Ravi, 2020).

The objective of minimizing the number of abortions is a point of agreement. Abortion supporters feel that access to safe and legal abortions is critical to protecting women’s health and autonomy. Opponents of abortion claim that limiting abortions is necessary to preserve the rights of the unborn child. However, all sides might agree that minimizing the need for abortions through prevention and assistance is a worthwhile objective. This might involve encouraging sex education and providing access to contraception in order to prevent unwanted births and assist pregnant women (Ravi, 2020).

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Analysis of Stakeholder’s Interest and Arguments

Abortion stakeholders are persons or groups who are interested in or affected by the abortion problem. This covers the women who have abortions, the men who are prospective fathers, and the government’s abortion rules and practices. The key concerns of women seeking abortions are their reproductive rights, health, and safety. They demand safe and legal abortion services, as well as the freedom to make reproductive decisions without government intervention or judgment.

They also want to receive proper healthcare and emotional support during the procedure (Drageset, 2021). There are specific groups, such as pro-choice and pro-life advocacy groups. The pro-choice movement argues and supports women’s right to choose abortion, whilst the pro-life movement opposes it and advocates for the unborn to be terminated.

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Men have an interest in abortion as well; males who are the partners of women having an abortion can be interested in supporting their partners’ reproductive health, and respect for autonomy is critical. They can also want to avoid accidental parenthood, particularly if they are not ready or able to become parents. They can also wish to avoid the financial and emotional consequences associated with an unplanned pregnancy. Some males can feel that life begins at conception and that abortion is murder.

They can also see themselves as defenders of the unborn child, believing they must defend their right to life. Some can claim that males have no right to meddle with women’s abortion decisions because it is their autonomy (Strong, 2022).

In addition, the government is interested in abortion because it protects citizens’ health and safety. This involves establishing quality and safety standards for abortion services, as well as legislation governing who can perform abortions and under what conditions. The government also develops rules that protect both mothers’ and fetuses’ rights. Furthermore, they can present their views and interests based on public opinion and pressure.

They need to consider the perspectives of various interest groups, such as religious organizations, pro-choice advocacy groups, and medical associations, in order to develop policies that reflect the will of the people while adhering to legal and ethical principles (Lockhart et al., 2022). Abortion supporters believe that the government has no authority over abortion and that it is an issue of women’s rights and autonomy. At the same time, opponents argue that abortion is a governmental issue and should be addressed by government regulations and guidelines(Lockhart et al., 2022).

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

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Insight from Different Academic Disciplines

Abortion is a nuanced and difficult issue. Several disciplines of research, including sociology, psychology, ethics, and law, provide useful insights into the current abortion controversy (Niţă & Ilie Goga, 2020). The pro-choice view on abortion is based on the conviction that women should have the right to choose whether or not to terminate their pregnancy. Sociology researchers have shown that providing safe and legal abortion services reduces maternal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as the prevalence of unplanned pregnancies and deliveries (Pabayo et al., 2020). According to Chae et al,(2020), women seek abortions for a variety of personal and socioeconomic reasons, including financial insecurity, interpersonal issues, and a lack of support.

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

In contrast, the pro-life movement believes that abortion is morally wrong and should be illegal. Ethical research has proven that the moral rights of the unborn are an important component of the abortion debate. Some ethical systems argue that the fetus has moral significance and should be protected from damage. Others say that the moral standing of a fetus is not the same as that of a fully developed human being and that a woman’s freedom to self-determination should be honored.

Furthermore, studies in psychology suggest that women who have abortions may have negative psychological repercussions such as despair and anxiety (American Psychological Association, 2022; Pabayo et al., 2020). Other studies have identified no significant differences in mental health outcomes between women who have had abortions and those who have not.

Analysis of Abortion through Deontology

We shall use one of the three normative ethics in the analysis of the abortion question. Deontology is the act of doing something despite the consequences. The social issue of abortion may be examined using deontology, taking into account both the mother and the unborn. Abortion, according to deontology, is a morally reprehensible conduct for a variety of reasons. Killing an innocent person is deemed wrong under deontology (Alexander & Moore, 2020). Human life begins with fertilization and the development of a fetus, according to deontological ethics. Because the fetus has a distinct genetic code, it is classed as a person, therefore murdering it would be deemed a wrongful act under deontology.

Furthermore, deliberate pain is seen as bad in deontological ethics. Having an abortion brings agony and suffering to the fetus, supporting the notion that abortion is evil. Even if the fetus is less than 18 weeks old, not completely formed, and unable to feel anything, deontologists would still consider it immoral since it prevents the fetus from living a life similar to our own.

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

We can use deontology to argue that terminating a life is not necessarily bad since it can result in favorable effects. For example, if a young girl is impregnated through rape and is unable to parent the kid, abortion may be her only realistic alternative. In such circumstances, abortion may be the proper decision since it encourages personal choice and can benefit the woman’s life. The woman should have the same moral rights as the unborn, and no one should condemn her decision. The mother’s life is just as important as the fetus’ (Reuter, 2022).

Deontology helps in the analysis of social issues such as abortion and its associated consequences from a variety of views and orientations. However, attitude toward abortion is a complicated and personal decision influenced by a variety of circumstances, including personal views, values, and life experiences. It is critical to explore several viewpoints and data on this topic before reaching an individual opinion based on what one feels is ethical and fair.

Conclusion

Abortion is a contentious subject in today’s culture, with several points of view and competing interests. Abortion is valued from a variety of views, including personal liberty, women’s health, and gender equality. Abortion is opposed by those who believe it violates the sanctity of life, as well as those who believe it is a right of women. Women seeking abortion services, males who may be harmed by unwanted pregnancies, and governments attempting to regulate the practice are all stakeholders in this problem. While there may be differences in viewpoints, there is common ground in minimizing the need for abortions via prevention and assistance, and efforts to achieve this aim should be continued.

References

Alexander, L., & Moore, M. (2020, October 30). Deontological Ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/

American Psychological Association. (2022, May 3). Restricting access to abortion likely to lead to mental health harms, APA asserts. Apa.org. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2022/05/restricting-abortion-mental-health-harms

Chae, S., Desai, S., Crowell, M., & Sedgh, G. (2020). Reasons why women have induced abortions: a synthesis of findings from 14 countries. Contraception96(4), 233–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2017.06.014

Drageset, J. (2021, March 12). Social Support (G. Haugan & M. Eriksson, Eds.). PubMed; Springer. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK585650/

Lockhart, C., Lee, C. H. J., Sibley, C. G., & Osborne, D. (2022). The sanctity of life: The role of purity in attitudes towards abortion and euthanasia. International Journal of Psychology58(1). https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12877

Niţă, A. M., & Ilie Goga, C. (2020). A research on abortion: ethics, legislation and socio-medical outcomes. Case study: Romania. Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology61(1), 283–294. https://doi.org/10.47162/rjme.61.1.35

Pabayo, R., Ehntholt, A., Cook, D. M., Reynolds, M., Muennig, P., & Liu, S. Y. (2020). Laws Restricting Access to Abortion Services and Infant Mortality Risk in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113773

Ravi, A. (2020, June 13). Limiting Abortion Access Contributes to Poor Maternal Health Outcomes. Center for American Progress; Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/limiting-abortion-access-contributes-poor-maternal-health-outcomes/

Reuter, T. (2022, June 27). Rights of Women vs. Rights of the Unborn? – UAB Institute for Human Rights Blog. Sites.uab.edu. https://sites.uab.edu/humanrights/2022/06/27/rights-of-women-vs-rights-of-the-unborn/

Strong, J. (2022). Men’s involvement in women’s abortion-related care: a scoping review of evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters30(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/26410397.2022.2040774

The PLOS Medicine Editors. (2022). Why restricting access to abortion damages women’s health. PLOS Medicine19(7), e1004075. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1004075

Vogelstein, R. B., & Turkington, R. (2022, June 24). Abortion Law: Global Comparisons. Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/article/abortion-law-global-comparisons

World Health Organization. (2024, May 17). Abortion. World Health Organization; World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/abortion

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

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