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NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

There are several healthcare units working around the globe such as rehabilitation centers or nursing care homes and hospitals, etc. These health care units are dealing with different kinds of diseases and face various challenges. The primary care coordination control necessitates the availability of quality service in every kind of medical units (Vargas et al., 2020). In the USA, nurses and medical staff are continuously facing problems in providing quality care services due to multiple factors. In any medical setting like nursing care homes, an ethical code of conduct is strictly followed to ensure the patients’ mental as well as physical health. The medical staff including nurses and doctors ensure the wellbeing of their patients by adopting the best possible strategies and trying to minimize the death risk at any cost. Hence, people working in healthcare units such as nursing care homes have to deal with several ethical problems in their routine life (Berlinger et al., 2020).  It is mandatory for each person working in a nursing care home to follow the ethical guidelines strictly. Although, it has become difficult for professionals to follow ethical principles. In many cases, there is uncertainty among health care professionals regarding ethical rules to be adopted. For example, patients suffering from chronic illness, patients who are unable to make a devised decision about their medical treatment produce uncertain conditions. 

Various clinical teams are working in health care units that provide the proper instructions to the professionals as well as to the patients in nursing care homes. They ensure that the patients and their family members should be educated so that they can make a strong decision about any medical treatment to be taken.  In addition, a surge of an emergency condition may change the ethical considerations, for example, the emergence of a huge number of patients suffering from the pandemic COVID-19.  Because, in case of an emergency, preference is given to the safety of the patients so, the ethical considerations may be overlooked under critical circumstances. Moreover, there is a huge difference between medical units working under normal conditions and medical units working under an emergency. It may be possible that under an emergency proper medication may not be provided due to the lack of resources. This presentation addresses the safety and ethical issues, guidelines for medical professionals including nurses working in a nursing care home. More specifically, I will address to the nurses working in a nursing care home in the USA. 

Effect of Governmental Policies Related to Health Care on Coordination of Care in a Nursing Care Home

Coordination of care is the primary objective of nursing care homes. There are proper safety guidelines provided by health care professionals. Several countries have devised protocols for ensuring primary coordination care. For example, China has set some strategic plans for coordination care (Wang et al., 2018). However, governmental policies may influence the coordination of care in several ways. In most of the cases, government allocates a very little amount of funds for coordination care which hiders the proper management of patients in a nursing care home. Moreover, less sufficient staff members is working in nursing care homes so the goal of coordination care can’t be achieved properly due to less manpower. Let us consider the example of the USA during the pandemic COVID-19. The government also makes policies for dealing with an emergency situation. For instance, the government should devise a well-established communication system that can provide awareness and timely information about an emergency–ultimately ensuring the proper coordination control in a nursing care home.

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

Moreover, the government should communicate and collaborate with stakeholders dealing in the field of nursing care homes (Gao & Yu, 2020). The USA government along with the health care units like nursing care homes provided the maximum financial add to maximize the coordination care in addition to the prestigious health care units (Buxbaum & Rak, 2021).  Moreover, different agencies such as CDC are also working in the USA that provide guidelines about a particular disease as well as its management and preventive measures to the nurses working in a nursing care home (Benavides & Nukpezah, 2020). 

During recent years, due to increasing population growth, availability of food, particular healthy food was a big challenge at global scale. Thus, to overcome this food insecurity issue government started to make policies for availability of less expensive food mostly starch food. However, this starchy food resulted in obesity, hypertension, and other associated disease. Thus, government policies damaged the effective continuum of care (Mozaffarian et al, 2018). Moreover, in another country, government launched a regional system for health due to alarming situation of increased rate of diseases in various sectors. This regional system addressed the availability of health care services to the patient ensuring the effective continuum of care. However, this system faced different cores of challenges including financial issues. Hence, different policies need practice and relevant information should be made available to the government for effective continuum of care in a nursing care home (Ong et al, 2018). 

Impact of Code of Ethics of Nurses on Coordination and Continuum of Care 

Medical staff and professionals are given proper training as well as instructions to ensure the safety of the patients in nursing care homes. However, some nurses are well familiar with the outrage of an emergency and they are well equipped for that purpose such as medical workers working in the first-aid units, rescue workers, etc. At the same time, some medical staff including nurses are less familiar and do not have sufficient knowledge about how to deal with emergency circumstances in a nursing care home. In case of an emergency outrage, the care that is patient-oriented becomes population-oriented. For example, consider the outrage of a pandemic like COVID-19. The medical staff of nursing care home will try to save every individual despite of focusing on quality care of a particular number of patients, hence in such cases, ethical considerations are population oriented. There are three main ethical concerns for the medical personnel dealing with an emergency in a nursing care home.

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

  1. Responsibility to plan: Health care workers must be prepared and plan to deal with emergencies
  2. Responsibility to protect: Health care workers must provide every possible medical service to secure the patients under an emergency outrage
  3. Responsibility to guide: There must be a proper set of guidelines for the public as well as medical staff about how to treat patients facing an emergency

Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities  

Let us discuss social determinants of health and health disparities in a nursing care home. Social determinants are those factors which determine how the living style or standard of different people in a society affect the continuum of care. It is evident that the community having low living standard will suffer more from diseases as compared to the community whose living standards are very high. Poor people have more risk of disease. In addition to the financial status, cultural and social status of the people also affect their approach toward health care systems (Alegría et al, 2018). In another study, social determinant regarding breast cancer were analyzed which were education, financial status, social status, not doing any job, support from society (Coughlin, 2019).  Thus, society plays a central role in determine the effective continuum of care in a nursing care home.   

Now, let us discuss some of the health disparities in some diseases such as cancer in a nursing care home. As we all know that cancer is a lethal disease and several health disparities are associated with it including lack of education, social isolation, lack of income, lack of proper diagnostic center. Several studies have been carried out to determine theses disparities and the ways to control them. In a study, some health disparities associated with breast cancer were analyzed in a nursing care home. It was concluded that race specific health disparities were abundant. The white people or Americans had highest rate of breast cancer however Asian people depicted very low rate (Zavala et al, 2021).  

National State or Local Policy Provision that Raise Ethical Dilemmas for Care Coordination

As the global world is facing the pandemic Covid-19. In the USA, there was a huge outbreak of Covid-19 patients during recent years. Multiple health care units like nursing care homes are striving to control the pandemic by adopting innovative strategies. However, at the same time, the control measures adopted for Covid-19 may raise some ethical concerns in the USA. One of the major concerns is the rationing of clinical resources (McGuire et al., 2020). Health care units have devised different policies for rationing protocols which may vary according to different states. Due to the excessive outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, various professionals devising ethical guidelines are collaborating with health care staff working in a nursing care home to design new policies for treating the patients suffering from the pandemic. These policies also cover the ethical concerns in coordination care.  However, nurses and medical staff strictly follow the ethical code of laws there may be some ethical concerns at the national or provincial level that gave rise to new hurdles. 

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

Nurses ensure the provision of health care by following the standard principles of ethics in a nursing care home. Healthcare units follow a certain set of code of ethics which ensure that ethical and privacy concerns of the patients are safeguarded. Government make several policies for patients as well as for medical professional, however there are some ethical dilemmas regarding these policies. Privacy concerns are about the confidentiality of the patient’s information and other data at national scale. In these case nurses, face ethical dilemmas whether they should share the information with other or they should keep the information secret. It happens mostly when a patient do not want his information to be shared with his family members. Hence, doctors and nurses face ethical dilemmas in nursing care homes. In addition, self determination of patients may lead to the ethical concerns. Government should make policies where a patient has right to decide, he has the right of privacy so that medical professionals may not face ethical dilemmas.

Conclusion

The current presentation elaborated on the importance of coordination control in a nursing care home. Moreover, it described the ethical concerns in providing coordination care in nursing care homes. It can be concluded that all the medical staff and nurses should follow the ethical code of laws in their medical settings especially nursing care homes. However, these codes of laws may change according to the emergency outrage like pandemic Covid-19. Several organizations and policymakers in governments have an influence on devising ethical laws and their implementation in medical units like nursing care homes. 

References

Alegría, M., NeMoyer, A., Falgàs Bagué, I., Wang, Y., & Alvarez, K. (2018). Social determinants of mental health: where we are and where we need to go. Current Psychiatry Reports20(11), 1-13. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-018-0969-9

Benavides, A. D., & Nukpezah, J. A. (2020). How local governments are caring for the homeless during the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Review of Public Administration50(6-7), 650-657.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074020942062

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

Berlinger, N., Wynia, M., Powell, T., Hester, D. M., Milliken, A., Fabi, R., & Jenks, N. P. (2020). Ethical framework for health care institutions responding to novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) guidelines for institutional ethics services responding to COVID-19. The Hastings Center12.

Buxbaum, J. D., & Rak, S. (2021). Equity and the uneven distribution of federal COVID-19 relief funds to US hospitals: Study examines the distribution of federal COVID-19 relief funds to US hospitals. Health Affairs40(9), 1473-1482. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02018

Coughlin, S. S. (2019). Social determinants of breast cancer risk, stage, and survival. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment177(3), 537-548. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-019-05340-7

Gao, X., & Yu, J. (2020). Public governance mechanism in the prevention and control of the COVID-19: information, decision-making and execution. Journal of Chinese Governance5(2), 178-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/23812346.2020.1744922

McGuire, A. L., Aulisio, M. P., Davis, F. D., Erwin, C., Harter, T. D., Jagsi, R. & COVID-19 task force of the association of bioethics program directors (ABPD). (2020). Ethical challenges arising in the COVID-19 pandemic: An overview from the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD) task force. The American Journal of Bioethics20(7), 15-27. DOI: 10.1080/15265161.2020.1764138

Mozaffarian, D., Angell, S. Y., Lang, T., & Rivera, J. A. (2018). Role of government policy in nutrition—barriers to and opportunities for healthier eating. Bmj361. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.k2426

Ong, S. E., Tyagi, S., Lim, J. M., Chia, K. S., & Legido-Quigley, H. (2018). Health systems reforms in Singapore: A qualitative study of key stakeholders. Health Policy122(4), 431-443. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2018.02.005

Vargas, I., Eguiguren, P., Mogollón-Pérez, A. S., Bertolotto, F., Samico, I., López, J. & Vázquez, M. L. (2020). Understanding the factors influencing the implementation of participatory interventions to improve care coordination. An analytical framework based on an evaluation in Latin America. Health Policy and Planning35(8), 962-972. DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa066

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 2 Ethical and Policy Factors in Care Coordination 2

Wang, B., Wu, C., Kang, L., Reniers, G., & Huang, L. (2018). Work safety in China’s thirteenth five-year plan period (2016–2020): Current status, new challenges and future tasks. Safety Science104, 164-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.01.012

Zavala, V. A., Bracci, P. M., Carethers, J. M., Carvajal-Carmona, L., Coggins, N. B., Cruz-Correa, M. R., … & Fejerman, L. (2021). Cancer health disparities in racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. British Journal of Cancer124(2), 315-332. doi: 10.1038/s41416-020-01038-6.

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