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NR 449 Week 5 RUA Evidence-Based Practice 12

Clinical Question

The individuals’ lives worldwide, leading to significant changes and challenges. One prominent issue that has emerged during the pandemic is the enforced quarantine and isolation measures, particularly in long-term care facilities, which have adversely affected patient and family engagement. This lack of attention has resulted in worse outcomes, increased complications, and higher patient mortality rates.

Research by Susan M. Tupper (2020) highlights the positive impact of family presence on the quality of life and mortality rates of residents in long-term care facilities. When families cannot be present, there is a higher likelihood of consistency in care, healthcare errors, and missed opportunities to address unique care needs. The psychological well-being of patients has also been compromised due to enforced isolation, leading to increased mortality rates and complications.

Given the significance of decreased or no family engagement during the pandemic, our group has been assigned the PICOT question “Patient and Family Engagement during a Pandemic.” This topic has been a significant concern throughout 2020, and this paper aims to explore the adverse effects of limited family engagement on patient outcomes, the impact on healthcare workers and family members, and the crucial need to find a solution to this issue.

NR 449 Week 5 RUA Evidence-Based Practice 12

Synthesis of Literature

The study by Tupper, S.M., Ward, H., and Parmar, J. (2010) examines the relationship between family visits or engagement and patient well-being and its effect on healthcare staff. The study employs two variables: an independent variable, which is the allowance of family visits, and a dependent variable, which is the patient’s well-being. The findings suggest that as family visits are permitted, there is a potential increase in the well-being of patients. This qualitative study focuses on the quality of patients’ health and its impact on healthcare workers. Tupper, S.M., Ward, H., and Parmar, J. (2020) emphasize the importance of striking a balance between ensuring family engagements and maintaining the safety of others.

Burn, P.B., and Chung, K.C. (2010) is a qualitative study exploring evidence-based medicine for clinical questions. The study involves two variables: a dependent variable, which is the utilization of evidence-based medicine, and an independent variable, which is the formulation of clinical questions. The dependent variable, the use of evidence-based medicine, relies on the development of clinical questions as the independent variable. This study highlights the significance of evidence-based medicine in the future of modern healthcare and its potential to enhance quality efforts.

Levels of Evidence

Our assigned group is tasked with addressing a prognosis question. Prognosis questions aim to predict the outcome of an intervention for a specific population (Burns & Chung, 2010). Our group’s PICOT question focuses on supporting family and patient participation during a pandemic and assessing the impact of different interventions on patients and family members. The choice of study design for analysis is influenced by the nature of the question being investigated.

NR 449 Week 5 RUA Evidence-Based Practice 12

A cohort study is often a suitable approach for prognosis questions. According to Burns and Chung (2010), a prospective cohort study involves observing participants undergoing the intervention and evaluating the outcomes. This method compares two groups with similar characteristics but exposed to different interventions. In our PICOT question, both research groups consist of hospitalized individuals and their families during the pandemic. One group receives a specific intervention aimed at enhancing family engagement, while the other group does not receive the same intervention. Given the pandemic, a prospective cohort design is appropriate as it allows for continuous monitoring and implementation of the prescribed interventions.

Based on this design, our study falls into level two evidence, indicating moderate certainty in the findings. By employing a prospective cohort approach, we can gather valuable insights into the prognosis and effects of the interventions on patient and family outcomes during the pandemic.

Search Strategies

I used several search strategies to find relevant papers when conducting my research. Initially, I accessed the Chamberlain University Library and used specific keywords such as “family and patient engagement during a pandemic” and “COVID-19 pandemic” to guide my search. I explored various databases, including the CU libraries and Google Scholar, to gather informative publications.

NR 449 Week 5 RUA Evidence-Based Practice 12

I implemented specific filters and criteria to refine my search and narrow the overwhelming number of papers. I focused on selecting peer-reviewed articles and restricted the geographical location to the United States. Additionally, I applied a time constraint by considering articles published within the last five years. These modifications helped me streamline my search results and identify two pieces I believed would be valuable for myself and my group.

Throughout my search, my primary focus was finding studies that offered insights into techniques and approaches for facilitating family and patient engagement in healthcare and addressing the challenges posed by the pandemic. By utilizing these search strategies, I aimed to gather relevant information and contribute to understanding effective methods for fostering engagement during the pandemic.


These two studies provide valuable insights that support our group’s analysis and align with our hypothesis. One article delves into the transformation of American medicine through evidence-based practices, while the other examines the impact of COVID-19 on hospitals and patient-family engagement. Given the high-risk nature of hospital settings, the involvement of families in the in-patient care process has undergone significant changes during the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate the transmission of the virus. However, it is crucial to recognize the importance of family engagement in promoting positive patient outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to explore strategies that enable family involvement in care during the pandemic while minimizing the risk of further infection spread. Considering the insights from these studies, we can enhance our understanding of practical approaches to maintaining family engagement in healthcare settings during these challenging times.



PRS.0b013e3181de24a Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: reading, using, and creating evidence. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Tupper, S. M., Ward, H., & Parmar, J. (2020). Canadian Geriatrics Journal, 23(4), 335–339. https://doi.org/10.5770/cgj.23.476

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