Writink Services

NR 327 Maternal-Child Nursing Covid-19 and Pregnancy

COVID-19 and Pregnancy: Navigating the Challenges for Expectant Mothers

2020 will forever be remembered as bringing our generation face-to-face with an unprecedented problem – the global spread of a novel coronavirus known as Covid-19. This pandemic has profoundly impacted millions of people worldwide, fundamentally altering how we live. Large gatherings have been prohibited, wearing masks in public has become the norm, and the mere sound of a cough can cause heads to turn. However, the effects of Covid-19 extend far beyond our daily lives, significantly impacting the healthcare field as well. Hospitals and healthcare workers face overwhelming challenges, with an influx of new patients infected with the virus, shortages of personal protective equipment, and widespread burnout among staff.

Within the realm of healthcare, it is crucial to examine the relationship between Covid-19 and pregnancy. This article aims to analyze how the virus affects expecting mothers, the developing fetus, and newborns during both the antepartum and intrapartum periods. Furthermore, it will explore preventive measures expectant mothers can take to reduce their risk of contracting the virus.

NR 327 Maternal-Child Nursing Covid-19 and Pregnancy

Understanding Covid-19: Symptoms, Complications, Transmission, and Risk Factors

Covid-19, a novel virus, continues to be a subject of ongoing research and analysis as new data emerges. The global focus is on developing an effective vaccine, given the escalating number of infections and fatalities. While our knowledge about the virus constantly evolves, certain aspects have been established, including its presentation, complications, transmission methods, and the groups most vulnerable to its impact.

The incubation period of Covid-19 typically ranges from two to fourteen days, with an average of five days. However, it’s important to note that this duration can vary depending on age and preexisting health conditions. The most commonly observed symptoms of Covid-19 thus far include cough, fever, fatigue, sputum production, sneezing, headache, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, sore throat, and lymphopenia. Complications associated with Covid-19 encompass a range of conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, acute cardiac injury, hypoxemia, and mortality. The virus primarily spreads through infected respiratory droplets released during coughing, sneezing, and speaking. Recent studies have found a correlation between Covid-19 and preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy.

NR 327 Maternal-Child Nursing Covid-19 and Pregnancy

Several risk factors have been identified that contribute to the severity of the virus. These include age, with older individuals being more susceptible, as well as preexisting health conditions such as respiratory and heart conditions, impaired renal function, and elevated D-Dimer and troponin levels. Males over 50 have also been found to be at a higher risk of mortality from Covid-19. As research progresses, staying updated on the evolving understanding of Covid-19, its impact, and the measures necessary to mitigate its effects is essential.

Covid-19 and the Antepartum Period: Implications for Pregnant Women The antepartum period refers to the time before labor and birth, encompassing the changes experienced by the mother and the maturation of the fetus. However, in Covid-19, pregnant women face an elevated risk of adverse reactions, complications, prolonged hospital stays, ICU admission, and even mortality. Pneumonia, a common complication of Covid-19, can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Pregnant women with pneumonia associated with Covid-19 are also susceptible to sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), secondary bacterial infections, and renal failure. The trimester during which Covid-19 affects


Advice for the public on COVID-19. (2020). Retrieved November 28, 2020, from


Dashraath, P., Wong, J. L., Lim, M. X., Lim, L. M., Li, S., Biswas, A., Su, L. L. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic and pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 222(6), 521-531. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2020.03.021 Daribi, K., Awulachew, E., & Get, E. (2020). The effect of coronavirus infection (sars-cov-2, mers-cov, and sars-cov) during pregnancy and the possibility of vertical maternal–fetal transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Medical Research, 25(1). doi:10.1186/s40001-020-00439-w How to Protect Yourself & Others. (2020). Retrieved November 28, 2020, from


Long-Term Effects of COVID-19. (2020). Retrieved November 28, 2020, from


Mascio, D. D., Khalil, A., Sac cone, G., Rizzo, G., Boca, D., Liberate, M., Antonio, F. (2020). The outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (sirs, mars, covid-19) during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 2(2), 100107. doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100107 McIntosh, K. (2020, November 22). Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): Epidemiology, virology, and prevention (1085186712 823704417 M. S. Hirsch & 1085186713 823704417 A. Bloom, Eds.). Retrieved November 28, 2020, from


Mikami, T., Miyashita, H., Yamada, T., Harrington, M., Steinberg, D., Dunn, A., & Siu, E.

(2020). Risk factors for mortality in patients with covid-19 in New York City. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3588532bMullins, E., Evans, D., Viner, R. M., O’Brien, P., & Morris, E. (2020). Coronavirus in pregnancy and delivery: Rapid review. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 55(5), 586-592. doi:10.1002/log.22014 Rasmussen, S. A., Malian, J. C., Led Nicky, J. A., Wen, T. S., & Jamieson, D. J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) and pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 222(5), 415-426. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.017 Ruthann, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (covid-19) outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity, 109, 102433. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433 Schwartz, D. A. (2020). The effects of pregnancy on women with covid-19: Maternal and infant outcomes. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(16), 2042-2044. doi:10.1093/cad/ciaa559 Signaled, S. S., & Kalan, M. E. (2020). Care of newborns born to mothers with covid-19 infection; a review of existing evidence. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 1-13. doi:10.1080/14767058.2020.1777969 Yang, H., Wang, C., & Poon, L. C. (2020). Novel coronavirus infection and pregnancy. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 55(4), 435-437. doi:10.1002/uog.22006

Please Fill The Following to Resume Reading

    Please Enter Active Contact Information For OTP

    Verification is necessary to avoid bots.