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NR 324 Nutrition Vitamins water and minerals


Vitamins play a crucial role in our overall health and well-being. They are obtained through our diet and are essential for various bodily functions, including supporting our immune system, cognitive function, and emotional well-being. When it comes to vitamin deficiencies, there are two types: primary and secondary deficiencies. Primary defects occur when there is a low intake of vitamins in our diet. This can happen if we do not consume enough foods rich in specific vitamins. Secondary deficiencies, on the other hand, are caused by impaired absorption of vitamins in our bodies. This poor absorption can be due to various factors, such as underlying disease processes or certain medications that interfere with the body’s ability to absorb vitamins effectively.

It’s important to note that excessive vitamin consumption can lead to toxicity. This can occur when we take excessive vitamins, often through supplements. While supplements can be beneficial in cases of vitamin deficiencies, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Taking too many supplements can result in excess specific vitamins in our body, adversely affecting our health. Vitamins are classified into two main groups: water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, flacon (folic acid), and B12. These vitamins are not stored in our bodies for long periods and need to be replenished regularly through our diet. On the other hand, fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are stored in our body’s fat tissues and can be utilized as needed.

NR 324 Nutrition Vitamins water and minerals

While supplements can be beneficial in cases of vitamin deficiencies, one must consider one’s overall health before using them. Certain health conditions or medications may interact with accessories, making them less effective or potentially harmful. It’s always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any vitamin supplementation regimen.

Water is an essential nutrient for our overall health and well-being. We obtain water not only from drinking liquids but also from many fruits and vegetables that have high water content. Men should consume approximately 13 cups of water daily, while women should aim for about 9 cups of water per day. Water can have different qualities depending on its mineral content. Hard water contains a high level of minerals, soft water has a high salt content, and contaminated water may contain substances such as lead. Ensuring our water is safe and free from harmful contaminants is essential.

NR 324 Nutrition Vitamins water and minerals

In our body, water is distributed among different compartments. This includes intracellular fluid, the fluid present within our cells; interstitial fluid, the fluid between our cells; and extracellular fluid, which encompasses interstitial fluid and all other fluids outside of cells. These different compartments play essential roles in maintaining proper hydration and functioning of our body. While water is not metabolized, it is an integral part of various metabolic processes in our body. It is a structural component, providing shape and support to cells and tissues. Water also plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature, as it helps sweat and cool down our body during physical activity or exposure to heat. Additionally, water is a lubricant for our joints and tissues, facilitating smooth movement and preventing friction. It also acts as a solvent, allowing various substances to dissolve and be transported within our body.

One of the critical functions of water is its role in maintaining homeostasis. Homeostasis refers to the body’s ability to regulate and maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. Water helps regulate the fluid balance in our body, ensuring proper hydration and facilitating the transportation of nutrients, hormones, and waste products. In conclusion, water is an essential nutrient for our body’s functioning and overall health. It serves as a structural component, regulates temperature, acts as a lubricant and solvent, and plays a vital role in maintaining homeostasis. It is essential to consume an adequate amount of water daily to meet our body’s hydration needs and to choose water sources that are safe and free from contaminants.

NR 324 Nutrition Vitamins water and minerals

Fluid volume imbalance can occur in our body, leading to fluid volume deficit or overload. Fluid volume deficit, dehydration, or hypovolemia occurs when the body has insufficient fluid and electrolytes. This can be caused by various factors such as excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, high temperatures, and diuretics. The symptoms of fluid volume deficit include decreased urinary output, dry mucous membranes, dry mouth, lightheadedness, disorientation, thirst, low blood pressure, and sudden weight loss. These signs indicate that the body lacks the necessary fluid and electrolytes to maintain proper hydration and normal bodily functions.

On the other hand, fluid volume excess, also known as fluid overload or hypervolemia, occurs when there is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the body. This can be caused by heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or increased dietary sodium intake. The symptoms of fluid volume excess include edema (swelling), weight gain, increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, fluctuating or rapid pulse rate, and fatigue. These symptoms indicate that the body is retaining more fluid than it needs, leading to an imbalance in fluid and electrolyte levels.

In addition to their role in fluid balance, electrolytes play a vital role in other body systems. For example, minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are essential for proper neurological functioning. They help transmit nerve impulses, regulate muscle contractions, and maintain the balance of fluids inside and outside cells. Minerals also play a crucial role in the muscular and skeletal systems. Calcium, for instance, is necessary for muscle contraction and bone health, while potassium helps maintain proper muscle function. Electrolyte imbalance can significantly affect these systems, leading to muscle weakness, cramps, and even skeletal abnormalities.


In conclusion, vitamins are crucial in immunity, intellect, and emotions, and deficiencies can be primary or secondary. Excessive consumption of vitamins can lead to toxicity, often caused by supplements. Water is an essential nutrient that can be obtained from various sources, and its intake recommendations vary by gender. Water has different bodily qualities and functions, including being a structural component and regulating temperature and homeostasis. Fluid volume deficit and overload can result from imbalances in fluid and electrolytes, with various causes and symptoms. Lastly, minerals impact multiple body systems, including the neurological, muscular, and skeletal systems.


Lewis, S. L., Dirksen, S. R., Heitkemper, M. M., & Bucher, L. (2017). Medical surgical nursing:

Assessment and management of clinical problems (10th Ed.). Mosby. CAS virtual workshop- Vitamins, Water, and Minerals

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