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NR 293 Skin and Skin Disorders

Signs and Symptoms and causes of:


Impetigo is a common infection that primarily affects infants and children. It is caused by a highly contagious bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus, especially in neonates. The characteristic signs and symptoms of impetigo include rapidly enlarging lesions on the face, which eventually rupture and form crusty masses.


Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by abnormal activation of T cells and excessive proliferation of keratinocytes. It is not contagious. Psoriasis commonly presents as silvery plaques on the face, scalp, elbows, and knees. These plaques are accompanied by itching or a burning sensation.

NR 293 Skin and Skin Disorders

Herpes Simplex 1:

Herpes Simplex 1 virus is the most common cause of cold sores or fever blisters, typically near the lips. It spreads through saliva, primarily through direct contact. Signs and symptoms of herpes simplex one infection include pain, sore lips, burning sensation, tingling, itching, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters.


Nevi are darkly pigmented lesions on the skin, often referred to as moles or birthmarks. While most nevi are benign, there is a chance of some of them being cancerous. Monitoring moles and birthmarks is essential to identify any changes that may indicate malignancy.


Varicella, commonly known as chickenpox, is a highly contagious viral infection. It primarily affects children and is characterized by an itchy blister-like rash on the skin and symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite.


Zoster, commonly known as shingles, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus in adults. After a person has had chickenpox, the virus can reactivate later in life, leading to shingles. Shingles’ characteristic signs and symptoms include a painful rash that appears as a stripe of blisters, usually occurring on one side of the body, typically on the trunk.


Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder that affects the mucous membranes of the mouth and genitals. In this condition, autoantibodies disrupt the cohesion between epidermal cells, leading to blister formation, skin shedding, and increased susceptibility to secondary infections.

NR 293 Skin and Skin Disorders

Urticaria (Chronic Hives):

Urticaria, also known as chronic hives, is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction triggered by ingesting certain substances or drugs. It is characterized by highly pruritic (itchy) red, swollen welts on the skin. Sometimes, itching can also occur in the throat, eyes, and lips.

Secondary Infections:

Secondary infections occur due to opportunistic pathogens taking advantage of a weakened immune system following a primary infection. Examples include vaginal yeast infections that commonly occur after antibiotic use or bacterial pneumonia following a viral upper respiratory infection.


Candidiasis is a yeast infection caused by Candida albicans. It commonly affects mucous membranes or the skin, leading to intense itchiness, inflammation, and a thick, white discharge.

NR 293 Skin and Skin Disorders

Tinea Capitis:

Tinea capitis is a scalp infection that cats and dogs can transmit. It is characterized by swelling, raised red rings, severe itching, dandruff, and the development of bald patches on the scalp.

Skin Cancers:

Seborrheic Keratosis is a benign skin condition characterized by the proliferation of basal cells. It is often found on the face or upper trunk.

Actinic Keratosis refers to pigmented, scaly.


In conclusion, skin disorders such as impetigo, psoriasis, herpes simplex 1, nevi, varicella, zoster, pemphigus, urticaria (chronic hives), candidiasis, and tinea capitis can have various causes, symptoms, and implications. It is essential to understand these conditions to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, skin cancers like seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and papule-nevus require attention and monitoring due to their potential for malignancy.

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