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NR 293 Final Exam Concept Review Pathophysiology

Gastrointestinal

Hiatal Hernia: Causes, Signs, and Symptoms

Hiatal Hernia: A condition characterized by the protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm. A short esophagus, trauma, or weak muscles can cause it. Symptoms include heartburn, belching, lying down discomfort, and substernal pain.

Microorganisms, allergies, alcohol consumption, and other factors. Chronic gastritis is often associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, the use of NSAIDs, and excessive alcohol intake. Symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis (vomiting blood), and abdominal pain. Peptic Ulcer Disease: The formation of ulcers in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. The leading causes are Helicobacter pylori infection, the use of NSAIDs, and a condition known as Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Symptoms include pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

NR 293 Final Exam Concept Review Pathophysiology

Cholelithiasis: The formation of gallstones in the gallbladder. The development of gallstones can be attributed to obstruction, high-fat diet, certain medications, age, and ethnicity. Symptoms may be absent in some cases, but excess cholesterol or bilirubin can lead to the formation of gallstones. Hepatitis- Hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver and is categorized into types A, B, and C. The transmission and symptoms vary depending on the type of hepatitis. The stages of hepatitis include the prodromal phase, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and the recovery stage.

Hepatic Encephalopathy- A condition characterized by the loss of brain function due to liver damage. Symptoms include forgetfulness, musty breath, handshaking, and slurred speech. The state is diagnosed through blood tests. Cirrhosis: A progressive and irreversible liver disease. The leading causes of cirrhosis are excessive alcohol consumption and hepatitis. Symptoms include liver inflammation, scar tissue formation, fatigue, loss of appetite, ascites (fluid buildup in the abdomen), jaundice, and complications such as infections and the development of esophageal varices.

NR 293 Final Exam Concept Review Pathophysiology

Esophageal Varices: Abnormal veins in the lower part of the esophagus that occur due to blockage of liver blood flow. Symptoms may not be present in many cases, including bleeding and shock. Complications of esophageal varices include liver failure, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening conditions. Crohn’s Disease- A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract. It is characterized by the presence of ulcers throughout the intestines.

Symptoms include non-bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, malabsorption, and weight loss. Ulcerative Colitis- An inflammatory bowel disease that primarily affects the colon and rectum. It is characterized by inflammation starting at the rectum and progressing upward. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, tenesmus (urge to have a bowel movement), and fever.

NR 293 Final Exam Concept Review Pathophysiology

Appendicitis: The inflammation of the appendix, often resulting from obstruction, infection, or ischemia (reduced blood supply). Symptoms include pain in the epigastric region (upper abdomen) and right lower quadrant, tenderness, and fever. Prompt medical attention and surgical removal of the inflamed appendix are typically required. Intestinal Obstruction: A condition characterized by the blockage of the intestines, leading to crampy abdominal pain, vomiting, and abdominal distention. Causes of intestinal obstruction include constipation, previous.

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