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JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson

JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson

Leininger and Watson

JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson

This paper will discuss two patient case studies with each one referencing a nursing theory. The first case study discusses Madeleine Leininger’s culture care model when applied to a Jamaican female patient recovering from a myocardial infraction. And the second case study in this paper will describe Jean Watson’s transpersonal caring relationship nurse theory and how this theory can benefit a Creole male patient’s recovery from hip surgery. These two behaviorism theories are an important concept for nurses to develop as they provide care to their patients. Nurses can “modify patient’s attitudes and responses, by either altering the stimulus conditions in their environment or changing what happens after a response occurs” (Braungart, et al. 2016). Leininger and Watson believed that nurses using a holistic approach to caring for patients can accomplish long term results. Comparing Leininger theory of cultural care model to Jean Watson’s transpersonal caring model show similar undertones but each have varied views on capturing fundamental differences in cultural attributes of patients. 

Case Study 1

JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson

In this first case study nurse Julie is caring for Mrs. Franklin-Jones who is recovering from a myocardial infarction that occurred one week ago. During the routine room move to the step-down cardiac unit Mrs. Franklin-Jones reports she was taken by surprise of her heart condition even though she has been aware for some time she has high blood pressure that was not well controlled. Mrs. Franklin-Jones continues her conversation with nurse Julie about her family history of high blood pressure and heart disease and that her traditional Jamaican diet could be contributing to her current health situation.  Mrs. Franklin-Jones also concedes she works long days covering two jobs and has minimal time to prepare nutritious meals and sometimes skips her medications. Mrs. Franklin-Jones does report she has family that live with her and come to visit occasionally. In applying Madeleine Leininger’s culture care model, nurse Julie considers which factors from her Mrs. Franklin-Jones that are pertinent in addressing for her discharge planning. Nurse Julie recalls her training on Madeleine Leininger’s culture care theory that cares should be specific and appropriate to the patient’s culture (Smith, et al., 2015 p.295).  Nurse Julie considers Mrs. Franklin-Jones cultural background and assesses her health situation for formulate a strong care plan that can carry on after discharge. Nurse Julie learns that mature Jamaican woman are raised to be passionate and caring providers for their husband and children, and that they have strong bonds with their family. Nurse Julie is also aware Mrs. Franklin-Jones views health in a holistic viewpoint and that illness may in fact be related to bad spirits or cultural taboos. And that Jamaican people’s diet is well balanced but with Mrs. Franklin-Jones now living in America her diet may have become high in fats and carbohydrates.  Nurse Julie formulates a care plan to address Mrs. Franklin-Jones heart disease through the patient’s perspective. Discussing traditional Jamaican remedies and religious beliefs that could significantly improve Mrs. Franklin-Jones success in her treatment regimen. Offering to include Mrs. Franklin-Jones family as emotional support will show respect for her culture and allow her to express herself on her terms and as the matriarch in her family. Nurse Julie can include a dietician and pharmacist in her care planning to assist with cultural food interactions and explaining high fat content foods. Madeleine Leininger’s cultural care model has strengths and limitations when applying to every patient. The three modes of Leininger’s care model that guide nursing in care planning are preserving the patients’ cultural customs, preserving the patients’ cultural standards during care and restructuring the patients’ patterns of distinctive culture. Intertwining these three culture values into patients care planning can improve patients’ acceptance and support recovery from illnesses much sooner. By adapting nursing cares, they become beneficial and satisfying for patients. Providing ways to change a patient’s cultural patterns and support them in modifying their personal health care choices can bring satisfaction and acceptance of change in their routines. Patients like Mrs. Franklin-Jones who are open with communication are easier to involve in their own care planning process. But patients who lack communication skills or the nurse to be involved with his or her personal viewpoints can be challenging in developing a culture care plan. The nurse should develop cultural behavior tendencies of their patients to arrive at a direction the patient feels the most comfortable with and will be more prone to accept in any goals placed in the care plan. Leininger’s care model has the capability of viewing the patient within the context of their particular culture and has the flexibility of viewing the multiethnic, multiracial patient within their unique cultural background (Jeffreys, et al., 2017 p. 8).

JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson

Case Study 2

This second case study is about Claude Jean-Baptiste, a Haitian male patient who is transferring to a rehabilitation unit after a total hip replacement surgery.  As Claude Jean-Baptiste enters the new rehabilitation unit he is met with genuine openness and acceptance by the healthcare staff. Healthcare staff assure his Creole language is accommodated in signage and translator services. Claude Jean-Baptiste is encouraged to include his family, spiritual customs, and favorite foods into his daily routine while in rehabilitation. The rehabilitation healthcare staff demonstrate acceptance of his culture and warmly welcome his spiritual beliefs to support his healing process. The rehabilitation unit nurse role in utilizing Jean Watson’s transpersonal caring relationship model is to support patients by seeing the spirit filled person behind the patient and their diagnosis (Smith, et al., 2015 p.319). Jean Watson’s carative nursing process is used internationally and can be applied by using the carative factors. Watson’s carative factors can be used to create the loving and caring moments nurses can share with their patients. These factors consist of nurturing nurse practice of loving-kindness and presence of mind with oneself and others, remaining authentically present when caring for the patient by empowering hope and honoring the patient’s belief customs while cultivating one’s own spiritual practices and sustaining each other’s positive and negative feelings can arrive at a transpersonal trust caring relationship. Watson theory consists of ten carative factors nurses can use as guides in forming intersubjective patient relationships. The ten factors are: 1) nurses form benevolent values 2) nurses have investiture of hope and faith 3) nurses nurture themselves and patients 4) nurses develop the trust relationship with patients 5) Nurse promote patients to express positive and negative feelings 6) nurses apply problem solving methods in patients care planning 7) Nurses share by teaching these interactive carative feelings with fellow nurses 8) nurses seek a protective supportive environment for their patients 9) nurse assist patient and families to meet humanistic and spiritual needs 10) nurses accept the metaphysical caring forces that occur in patients healing processes (Blasdell, 2017 p. 2). Maintaining the sacred healing connection between patient and nurse allows for the caring moments to occur (Pajnkihar et al. 2017 p. 2).  Healthcare staff caring for Claude Jean-Baptiste will find strengths and weaknesses in Jean Watson’s transpersonal caring theory. Nurse that are aware of how and when patients psych is open to forming caring moments takes time and practice using the theories factors in relation to each patient’s needs. Using Watson’s theory, the nurse must visualize and feel she is not alone in caring for the patient, that together they form a union and are attuned together in the healing relationship. The connection formed between the nurse and patient is far beyond the caring moment and is a spiritual connection that transcends time or space (Smith, et al., 2015 p. 321). Watson’s transpersonal caring relationship between nurse and patient is a unitary value that is dimensional an considered a sacred oneness of healing health and wholeness.

JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson


Nurses have multiple roles in healthcare in that they give of themselves in spiritual healing methods to a vast number of multicultural, multiracial patients. In the first section Madeleine Leininger’s cultural care model was applied to Mrs. Franklin-Jones Jamaican women recovering from a myocardial infarction. Mrs. Franklin-Jones nurse Julie formulates a care plan designed to meet the multicultural habits and diets to fit this patient. Nurse Julie adheres Leininger’s cultural model to the patient’s cultural background and sensitivities to assist Mrs. Franklin-Jones to quickly recovery from illness. In the second case study the rehabilitation unit is prepared for their multicultural patient Claude Jean-Baptiste with linguistic resources and staff. 

The rehabilitation unit encourages multicultural, multiethnic, and spiritual warmth and acceptance in every aspect of cares. Claude Jean-Baptiste is shown honor and devotional respect by encouraging his participation while healing from hip surgery to promote his spiritual connection in his recovery process.  Leininger and Watson resemble each other in multicultural caring attributes within the nursing process and duties they differ in context of patterns and philosophic properties. Watson feels that transpersonal caring involves an existential conceptualization with a spiritual moral ideal for nurses. Whereas Leininger focuses on the nurse caring aspects to nursing when dealing with transcultural patients and families. Together Leininger’s and Watson’s care models can be an asset to nurses in any field of healthcare.

JMRY8 Module 6 Leininger Newman and Watson


Blasdell, N. (2017). The meaning of caring in nursing practice. International Journal of Nursing Clinical Practice Article 4: 238. doi: https://doi.org/10.15344/2394-4978/2017/238

Braungart, M., Braungart, R., Gramet, P. (2016). Applying learning theories to healthcare practice. Nurse Key. https://nursekey.com/applying-learning-theories-to-healthcare-practice/

Jeffreys, M., Zoucha, R. (2017). The invisible culture of the multiracial, multiethnic individual: A transcultural imperative. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 24(1), 6-10. https://www-proquest-com.aspenuniversity.idm.oclc.org/scholarly-journals/invisible-culture-multiracial-multiethnic/docview/1885722744/se-2?accountid=34574

Pajnkihar, M., Štiglic, G., Vrbnjak, D. (2017). The concept of Watson’s carative factors in nursing and their (dis)harmony with patient satisfaction. Perr J Inc. Article 5, e2940. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2940

Smith, M.C. & Parker, M.E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed.). F.A. Davis Company.

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