JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

Objective of the Presentation


The objective of this presentation is to critically evaluate and summarize :
All of the eight theories learned in entire course
How the theory applies to current practice.
Positive patient outcomes resulting from utilizing the theory
Barriers in implementing the theories and how to overcome those barriers

First of all, I will discuss about the objectives of the presentation. The objective of this presentation is to critically evaluate and summarize :
All of the eight theories learned in entire course
How the theory applies to current practice.
Positive patient outcomes resulting from utilizing the theory
Barriers in implementing the theories and how to overcome those barriers

Contents


Parse’s Human Becoming Theory
Nightingale’s environmental theory
Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory
Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory
Imogene King (Theory of Goal Attainment)
Sister Callista Roy (Adaptation Model)
Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory
Contents of the Presentation includes eight theories that are:
Parse’s Human Becoming Theory
Nightingale’s environmental theory
Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory
Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory
I will discuss about their introduction, Examples in current practices, Patient Outcomes related to the theories and barriers in implementing the theories
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Parse’s Human Becoming Theory
First of all I will discuss about Parse’s Human Becoming Theory. The diagram represents the Symbol of theory

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Parse’s Human Becoming Theory
It guides the practice of nurses to focus on quality of life as it is described and lived.
It rates quality of life from each person’s own perspective as the goal of the practice of nursing.
The three major assumptions about human becoming are: meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence.
It makes assumptions about man that human is :
coexistent
Open
Unitary
It makes the assumptions that becoming is:
Unitary
Rhythmically co-constituting
an intersubjective process of transcending

(Smith, et al., 2020)
The Human Becoming Theory of Parse directs nurses’ practice to emphasize the importance of quality of life as it is articulated and experienced. The human becoming theory of nursing offers an alternative to both the standard bio-medical approach and the bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach used in the majority of other nursing theories and models. Quality of life as seen from the standpoint of the individual is the practice’s ultimate objective, according to Parse’s model. According to the Human Becoming Theory, The person and the universe coexist while creating rhythmical patterns together. The human being is a free spirit who may choose his or her own meaning in any given situation, and who takes full responsibility for his or her actions. We are all one, co-creating patterns of connection inexorably as we go about our daily lives. The human being is expanding into new dimensions as the possibilities expand around them. According to Parse’s model, becoming is unitary and rhythmically co-constituting the human universe process.

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Parse’s Human Becoming Theory Examples:
It gives the nurses a transformative approach in all levels of their practice
It helps the nurses to evaluate and tackle the problem positively rather “fix” the problem
It helps them to “be with” patients while treating them instead of just guiding them during the procedure
Positive Patients Outcomes :
It ensures that problem solution is according to patient perspective rather than just fixing the problem
It helps the patients to be more health lived and motivated towards the treatment
Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory

(Smith et al., 2020)
Parse’s Human Becoming Theory is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them includes as follows . It gives the nurses a transformative approach in all levels of their practice. It will enable them to practice their profession more intuitively and helps them treat their patient in a more effective way. This theory enables and helps the nurses to evaluate and tackle the problem positively rather “fix” the problem. It will facilitate the patients more as they will be treated thoroughly and their treatment goal would be treating the actual problem rather than just the symptomatic solution. It helps the nurses to “be with” the patients while treating them instead of just guiding them during the procedure and act like a counsellor instead of a nurse.
There are many Positive Patients Outcomes resulting in the application of the theory. For example, It ensures that problem solution is according to patient perspective rather than just fixing the problem or just treating the surface symptoms. It will eradicate the disorder from root. It helps the patients to be more health-lived and motivated towards the treatment as they are treated as human beings instead of any test subject or case study for the practitioners. They will take more interest in getting treatment. Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory.

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Nursing Satisfactions :
Nurses focuses on the desired outcome rather than just fixing as end of life situation
Nurses chooses lived experience with the patient
Nurses exhibit true presence through intentional and deliberate reflections.
Barriers for using the theory in practice:
Nursing shortage is the main barrier and it can be removed by hiring more nurses which would provide an appropriate nurse-client ratio.
Excessive biomedical needs of clients is also a barrier which can be overcome by using standard biomedical treatment models for basic diseases like fever etc.
(Smith et al., 2020)
Nursing Satisfactions due to theory are very important .Some of them are given in the slides. Due to application of the theory, Nurses focuses on the desired outcome rather than just fixing as end of life situation. As a result, nurses must spend a lot of time gathering data. Nurses chooses lived experience with the patient . This emphasizes the need for reflection to be more than just a ‘navel… patient study.’ Nurses exhibit true presence through intentional and deliberate reflections. This helps in the exhibition of true essence of the nursing profession
There are many Barriers for using the theory in practice. Two of them includes staff shortage and Excessive biomedical needs of patients .Nursing shortage is the main barrier in implementing the theory. This barrier can be removed by hiring more nurses which would provide an appropriate nurse-client ratio, hence increasing the staff and ultimately decreasing the work load on each nurse allowing them to concentrate on each patient individually. Another Barrier is the Excessive biomedical needs of clients. Patients while getting individual attention, demands excessive unnecessary needs during the treatment which is not useful in terms of medical and financial perspective of the organisation. This challenge can be overcome by using standard biomedical treatment models for basic diseases like fever etc.

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Nightingale’s Environmental theory
Now I will discuss about Nightingale’s Environmental theory . The diagram represents the Symbol of theory
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Nightingale’s Environmental theory
Nursing, according to Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory, is “the act of using the patient’s surroundings to aid him in his recovery.“
According to the theory, Human are defined in relation to their environment and the impact of the environment upon them.
In her theory, there are five (5) environmental factors: fresh air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness or sanitation, and light or direct sunlight.
Four assumptions of the theory includes:
Five factors mentioned above are compulsory for better treatment
Healthy environment is essential for healing
There should be accurate observations of the patients by nurses
Nursing is an art, whereas medicine is a science

(Smith et al., 2020)
Nursing is “the act of utilizing the patient’s environment to support him in his recovery,” according to Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory. It refers to the nurse’s initiative in constructing appropriate environmental settings for the patient’s gradual restoration of health, as well as the fact that external influences in the patient’s environment have an impact on the patient’s life, biologic and physiologic processes, and development. Nightingale expressed the Environmental Theory in her book Notes on Nursing: What it Is, What It Is Not. She is acknowledged as being the first nurse thinker and setting the foundation for the contemporary nursing profession. According to the theory, Human are defined in relation to their environment and the impact of the environment upon them. In her theory, there are five (5) environmental factors: fresh air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness or sanitation, and light or direct sunlight.
There are Four assumptions of the theory which includes:
Five factors (: fresh air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness or sanitation, and light or direct sunlight.) are compulsory for better treatment of patients.
Healthy environment of the organization and surroundings of the patients is essential for their healing
There should be accurate observations of the patients by nurses which will be useful in efficient treatment of the patients.
Nursing is an art, whereas medicine is a science. Nurses are to be loyal to the medical plan, but not servile.

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Nightingale’s Environmental theory Examples(Rahim , 2013):
Treatment of wounds and injuries can be done using this theory.
Treatment of mental patients can be done through the theory
Diabetic and Hypertension patients are also case study for this theory
Positive Patients Outcomes :
It diagnose the patient regarding his environmental conditions and giving nurse a new perspective of the disease
Patients hygienic condition is also discussed and become the most prominent point besides the disorder
Patient’s quality of life increases as increase the quality of environment around him also increases

(Smith et al., 2020)
Nightingale’s Environmental theory is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them includes as follows(Rahim , 2013): Treatment of wounds and injuries can be done using this theory as these type of treatments are excessively effected by environment and this theory can be applicable here for their treatment. Treatment of mental patients can be done through the theory. Mental disorder patients are usually effected by their environment and it shows the prominence of this theory application here . Diabetic and Hypertension patients are also case study for this theory. These type of patients are widely effected by their environment especially the hypertension and heart patients.
Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory includes :
It diagnose the patient regarding his environmental conditions and giving nurse a new perspective of the disease thus enabling them to use a better nursing plan for the treatment . Patients hygienic condition is also discussed and become the most prominent point besides the disorder as it widely effects the treatment as a whole and plays important role during the treatment. Patient’s quality of life increases as increase the quality of environment around him also increases, ultimately treatment speed gets faster and patient recovers speedily.

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Nursing Satisfactions :
Nurses focuses on the desired outcome as well as environment of the patients
Nurses chooses best living conditions for the patient
Nurses exhibit more focus on each patient and ensures better overall environmental condition
Barriers for using the theory in practice:
financial crises is the main barrier and it can be removed by funding more towards the infrastructure and environment of the hospitals
Low ethical standards is also a barrier which can be removed by revising the ethical principles of hospitals
(Smith et al., 2020)
There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. Nurses focuses on the desired outcome as well as environment of the patients. It will help them understand the disorder in a new perspective and ultimately they will give a better solution to the problem. Nurses chooses best living conditions for the patient by monitoring the environment and it will help them treat the patient in a best possible way. Nurses exhibit more focus on each patient and ensures better overall environmental condition. It increase the treatment efficiency as a whole both for the patient and nurses
There are some Barriers are also present which posses challenges for the implementation of the theory. One of them is the financial crises. It is the main barrier in implementing the theory and it can be removed by funding more towards the infrastructure and environment of the hospitals which will enables the nurses to provide a cleaner and healthier environment to the patients . Second barrier is the Low ethical standards . This is one of the most challenging situation in an organization, which can be removed by revising the ethical principles of hospitals. Nurses can get special training on ethical standards by allowing them to attend workshops and conferences.

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Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Next one is the Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations. The diagram represents the Symbol and framework of theory

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Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Emphasized the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice.
According to the theory, there are four main components including person, environment, health and nursing.
Person is a developing organism that tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs
Environment consists of existing forces outside of the person
Health is a word symbol that implies a forward movement of personality
Nursing is a significant therapeutic interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with another human process that makes health possible
There are four assumptions of the theory :
Nurse and the patient can interact.
Both the patient and nurse mature as the result of the therapeutic interaction.
Communication and interviewing skills remain fundamental nursing tools
Nurses must clearly understand themselves to promote their client’s growth

(Smith et al, 2020)
This theory Emphasized the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice. According to the theory, there are four main components including person, environment, health and nursing. Person is a developing organism that tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs. Environment consists of existing forces outside of the person. Nursing is “an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between an individual who is ill or in need of health services and a nurse specifically trained to detect and respond to the need for support,” according to Hildegard E. Peplau. It’s a “maturing force and educational instrument” in which two or more individuals collaborate to achieve a common goal. According to Hildegard E. Peplau assumptions, nursing is “an interpersonal process of therapeutic contacts between a person who is unwell or in need of health services and a nurse specifically trained to detect and respond to the need for support. It’s a “maturing force and instructional instrument” where two or more people work together to attain a common goal. There are four assumptions of the theory . Number one is , Nurse and the patient can interact freely. Other is that both the patient and nurse mature as the result of the therapeutic interaction. Their Communication and interviewing skills remain fundamental nursing tools during the treatment and Nurses must clearly understand themselves to promote their client’s growth

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Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations Examples (Senn et al., 2013) :
This theory can be applied in rural nursing
This can be applied in emergency medical situations
This can be used in mental asylums and hospitals
Positive Patients Outcomes:
It ensures that patient doesn’t panic or become anxious during the treatment
Patient more confide in nurse way of treating him/her and cause more confidence on nurses
Nursing Plan is totally based on patient and nurse interpersonal relation

(Smith et al., 2020)
Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them includes as follows( (Senn et al., 2013) : This theory can be applied in rural nursing as at rural level, treatment becomes more beneficial if interpersonal communications are better . This can be applied in emergency medical situations. In these type of situations, treatment becomes fast if patient and nurse has a better communication and interpersonal relations. This can be used in mental asylums and hospitals for the same reasons mentioned in above two points
Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory includes : It ensures that patient doesn’t panic or become anxious during the treatment. Sometimes, nurses has to use hostile treatment and if this theory is applicable during the treatment, patient will get less anxious about the treatment and will cooperate more with the nurses. Patient becomes more confide in nurse’s way of treating him/her and cause more confidence on nurses. It helps them to treat the patient speedily and without any hinderance. Nursing Plan is totally based on patient and nurse interpersonal relation and this benefit the patient at most as the treatment model will be discussed prior to start the treatment.

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Nursing Satisfactions :
Nurses focuses on lowering the anxiety level of the patient hence treating them better
Nurses chooses a more personal relation with the patients and becomes more efficient
Nurses exhibit true presence through interpersonal and considered reflections.
Barriers for using the theory in practice :
Racism is the main barrier and it can be removed by rehabilitating the practitioners
Less socialism is another barrier which can be overcome by training the nurses about interpersonal and social interactions
(Smith, et al. 2020)
There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. Most of the important is that Nurses focuses on lowering the anxiety level of the patient hence treating them better and treatment becomes fast if patient and nurse has a better communication and interpersonal relations. Nurses chooses a more personal relation with the patients and becomes more efficient in their work as they communicate with the patients prior to the start of treatment . Moreover, Nurses exhibit true presence through interpersonal and considered reflections which helps in increase of confidence and trust in nurses from the patient side.
There are some Barriers are also present which posses challenges for the implementation of the theory. One of them is the racism. It is one of the main barrier which stops the nurses from communicating with patients. This can be removed by rehabilitating the practitioners and allowing them to attend workshops against professional racism. Less socialism or social behaviour also known as Introvert Behaviour is another barrier which can be overcome by training the nurses about interpersonal and social interactions. This can be done by allowing them to attend workshops and conferences designed specially for this purpose.

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Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory
Next is the Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory. The diagram represents the Symbol and framework of theory

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Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory
It focuses on the fact that different cultures have different caring behaviours and different health and illness values, beliefs, and patterns of behaviours.
It defined transcultural nursing as “a substantive area of study and practiced focused on comparative cultural care (caring) values, beliefs, and practices of individuals or groups
Cultural knowledge plays a vital role for nurses on how to deal with the patients.
Through Leininger’s theory, nurses can observe how a patient’s cultural background is related to their health and use that knowledge to create a nursing plan
In her theory, there are three modes of nursing including
Cultural care preservation or Maintenance
Cultural care accommodation or Negotiation
Culture care repatterning or Restructuring

(Smith et al., 2020)
According to Madeleine Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory or Culture Care Theory, providing meaningful and effective nursing care services to people in their cultural values, beliefs, and values involves understanding other cultures’ nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs, and values. It focuses on the fact that different cultures have diverse caring behaviours and different health and illness values, beliefs and behaviour patterns. It focuses on the fact that different cultures have different caring behaviours and different health and illness values, beliefs, and patterns of behaviours. It defined transcultural nursing as “a substantive area of study and practiced focused on comparative cultural care (caring) values, beliefs, and practices of individuals or groups. Cultural knowledge plays a vital role for nurses on how to deal with the patients.. Nursing is defined as a learned humanistic and scientific discipline that focuses on human care phenomena and activities in order to assist, support, facilitate, or enable individuals or groups to maintain or regain their well-being (or health) in culturally meaningful and beneficial ways, or to help people face disabilities or death. In her theory, there are three modes of nursing including , Cultural care preservation or Maintenance, Cultural care accommodation or Negotiation and Culture care repatterning or Restructuring

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Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory Examples:
It helps the nurses to see how a person cultural background is related to their health condition
It ensures in creating a nursing plan specific to physiological conditions of a specific culture or race
It gives enough support and sensitivity to different cultural patients while treating them (Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Theory, 2019)
Positive Patients Outcomes :
It ensures the patients that their culture isn’t a hindrance in their treatment rather it is a plus point
It helps the patients to be more motivated towards the nurses as their culture is acknowledged
Patient’s treatment quality enhances as it is based specifically on their race and culture.

Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them given in the slide. This theory helps the nurses to see how a person cultural background is related to their health condition It ensures in creating a nursing plan specific to physiological conditions of a specific culture or race, hence enabling the nurses to formulate a “personalized” treatment for the patient. It gives enough support and sensitivity to different cultural patients while treating them and it will increase their confidence on the nurses treating them. (Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Theory, 2019)
There are many Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory. For example , It ensures the patients that their culture isn’t a hindrance in their treatment rather it is a plus point for them to get a custom treatment instead of standard biomedical treatment models It helps the patients to be more motivated towards the nurses as their culture is acknowledged and thus it increases the trust and confidence of patients on the organization. Patient’s treatment quality enhances as it is based specifically on their race and culture, and the nursing plan is specifically designed for him.

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Nursing Satisfactions :
Nurses focuses on cultural dimension and uses specific strategies rather than standard models
Nurses chooses a more personal experience with patients resulting in quick recovery
Nurses exhibit true presence through transcultural communication
Barriers for using the theory in practice (Maier-Lorentz ,2018):
Lack of necessary cultural knowledge and it can be overcome by special trainings by using cultural case studies
Lack of intercultural communication which can be overcome by more transcultural exposure overtime
There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. Most of the important is that Nurses focuses on cultural dimension and uses specific strategies rather than standard models, hence increasing their exposure to multiple variants of a specific disease case study. Moreover, nurses chooses a more personal experience with patients resulting in quick recovery and also a better understand of the patient disorder. it helps nurses to exhibit true presence through transcultural communication and increases the efficiency hence increasing the job satisfaction.
There are some Barriers are also present which posses challenges for the implementation of the theory (Maier-Lorentz ,2018). One of them is the Lack of necessary cultural knowledge in a major way. This barrier can be and it can for all intents and purposes be overcome by very special trainings by using cultural case studies and specialised workshops and conferences designed specifically for this purpose, Lack of intercultural communication for all intents and purposes is also another barrier which can for the most part be definitely overcome by for all intents and purposes more transcultural exposure overtime
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Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory
Next is the Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory. The diagram represents the Symbol and framework of theory

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Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory
This theory allows nurses to formulate an effective nursing care plan that can also be easily adapted when and if any complexity comes up with the patient.
The theory explains that the nurse’s role is to find out and meet the patient’s immediate needs for help.
In her theory, there are three(3concepts: person, health and nursing.
For her, humans in need are the focus of nursing practice.
Health is replaced by a sense of helplessness as the initiator of a necessity for nursing
Orlando completely disregarded the environment in her theory, only focusing on the patient’s immediate need
Orlando speaks of nursing as unique and independent in its concerns for an individual’s need for help in an immediate situation.
(Smith et al., 2020)
According to Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory, Ida Nursing theorist Jean Orlando believes that patients and nurses should have a two-way connection. A key point is made about the crucial role played by the patient’s involvement in the nursing process. Orlando also thought of nursing as a separate vocation. He differentiated it from medicine, where nurses determine nursing action rather than being inspired by directives from physicians, organizational demands, and previous personal experiences. This theory allows nurses to formulate an effective nursing care plan that can also be easily adapted when and if any complexity comes up with the patient. The theory explains that the nurse’s role is to find out and meet the patient’s immediate needs for help.She was under the impression that doctors’ orders applied only to patients and not to nurses. Patient meaning and perception of the situation, she argued, should be considered. This theory allows nurses to formulate an effective nursing care plan that can also be easily adapted when and if any complexity comes up with the patient. The theory explains that the nurse’s role is to find out and meet the patient’s immediate needs for help. In her theory, there are three(3concepts: person, health and nursing. For her, humans in need are the focus of nursing practice and Health is replaced by a sense of helplessness as the initiator of a necessity for nursing Orlando completely disregarded the environment in her theory, only focusing on the patient’s immediate need. She speaks of nursing as unique and independent in its concerns for an individual’s need for help in an immediate situation.

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Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory Examples:
It can be used in treating Celiac disease (ŞAYIK et al., 2017)
It can be used to define the specific role of nurse in an institution
It enhances the reciprocal relationship of patient and nurse
Positive Patients Outcomes:
Patients are being positively influenced and the health and quality of life of patients increases
It aids patients in feeling better about themselves and being more dedicated to their therapy.
Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process Theory is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them are present in the slide. This theory can be used in treating Celiac disease (ŞAYIK et al., 2017) and other digestive disorders which are not life threatening but can become serous if not taken seriously in terms of treatment. It can be used to define the specific role of nurse in an institution and defining the guidelines of a nurse job and formulating the code of conduct of a standard nurse. Moreover, It also enhances the reciprocal relationship of patient and nurse. The nurse–client relationship is a contact between a nurse and a “client” (patient) that aims to improve the client’s well-being, which can be a person, a family, a group, or a community.
There are many Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory. For example , Patients are being positively influenced and the health and quality of life of patients increases as a whole. It has been proven that positive attitude towards the patients increase the speed of their recovery. Furthermore, It also aids patients in feeling better about themselves and being more dedicated to their therapy and ultimately leading them to a better treatment and an even better recovery process,

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Nursing Satisfactions :
It allows nurses to create an effective nursing care plan that can also be easily adapted
Nurses chooses step by stepped approach to assess and care for patients.
Nurses exhibit true presence through deliberate interactions.
Barriers for using the theory in practice:
Financial crises is the main barrier and it can be removed by more funding towards the goal.
Inadequate knowledge and low level of job proficiency is also a barrier and can be removed by proper professional training

(Maier-Lorentz ,2018).
There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. Most of the important is that It allows nurses to basically create an generally effective nursing care plan that can also be easily adapted. Moreover, Nurses literally choose a specifically step by stepped approach to assess and care for patients. It for the most part helps the nurses to exhibit true presence through fairly kind of deliberate interactions, which specifically is quite significant, which specifically is fairly significant.
There are some Barriers are also present which posses challenges for the implementation of the theory (Maier-Lorentz ,2018). One of them is financial crises. It is the main barrier and it can be removed by funding more towards goal. Other barrier is Inadequate knowledge and low level of job proficiency, which is also a great challenge and can be removed by proper professional training

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Imogene King (Theory of Goal Attainment)
Next is the Imogene King (Theory of Goal Attainment). The diagram represents the Symbol and framework of theory

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

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Imogene King (Theory of Goal Attainment)
It states that “Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction by which nurse and client share information about their perception in a nursing situation”
The model focuses on the attainment of certain life goals
It explains that the nurse and patient go hand-in-hand in communicating information, set goals together, and then take actions to achieve those goals.
According to her, Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction whereby nurse and client share information about their perceptions in the nursing situation.
Health is a dynamic life experience of a human being, which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment
Individuals are social beings who are rational and sentient.
The environment is the background for human interactions. It is both external to, and internal to, the individual.
(Smith et al.,2020)
According to the Theory of Goal Attainment, “Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction by which nurse and client share information about their perception in a nursing situation” and “a process of human interactions between nurse and client where each perceives the other and the situation, and through communication, they set goals, explore means, and agree on means to achieve goals” In this definition, an action is a series of behaviours encompassing both mental and physical activity, and a reaction is part of that series of actions. According to King, a nurse’s job is to help people stay healthy so they can do their jobs well. According to the theory, Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction by which nurse and client share information about their perception in a nursing situation. The model focuses on the attainment of certain life goals It explains that the nurse and patient go hand-in-hand in communicating information, set goals together, and then take actions to achieve those goals. According to her, Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction whereby nurse and client share information about their perceptions in the nursing situation. Health is a dynamic life experience of a human being, which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment Individuals are social beings who are rational and sentient. The environment is the background for human interactions. It is both external to, and internal to, the individual.
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Imogene King (Theory of Goal Attainment) Examples:
This can be used in diagnosing and treating disorders with multiple confusing symptoms that intervenes with other disorders too ((Application of a Theory-Goal Attainment Theory, 2020)
This is most helpful in neurological disorders like Alzheimer Disease etc (UĞUR et al., 2017)
Diabetic patients can also be treated by using this theory (Araújo et al., 2018)
Positive Patients Outcomes :
It ensures the achievement of our goal i.e. the treatment of patient.
It helps the patients to be more health lived
Patient’s treatment is focused on main disorder rather than just treating the symptoms

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

Imogene King (Theory of Goal Attainment) is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them have been included in the slides. This hypothesis can be used to diagnose and treat diseases that have numerous confounding symptoms and interact with other conditions. This will aid in completing the objective rather than remaining focused on addressing the symptoms (Application of a Theory-Goal Attainment Theory, 2020). This is especially useful in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, as they require the nurse’s undivided attention and goal achievement is the primary aim of therapy (UUR et al., 2017). This idea can also be used to treat diabetic individuals. Diabetic individuals have few or no signs of the condition, yet it can be deadly if not treated early enough. This is also an example of this theory application (Araújo et al., 2018)
There are many Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory. For example , It guarantees that our aim, i.e. patient therapy, is met. It enables patients to live longer and healthier lives, extending their recovery time and shortening the period of recuperation. The patient’s treatment focuses on the underlying issue rather than merely treating the symptoms, which is advantageous in terms of long-term goals.
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JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

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Nursing Satisfactions:
Nurses focuses on the desired outcome rather than just fixing as end of life situation
Nurses chooses lived experience with the patient
Nurses exhibit higher efficiency by focusing on the goal of treatment rather than just treating the patients.
Barriers for using the theory in practice (Imogene King: Theory of Goal Attainment (Study Guide), 2014):
Stress is a main barrier and can be overcome by motivating both patients and nurses by giving motivational lectures and conferences
Time is another barrier which can be overcome by applying multiple strategies at a time to save time and space
There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. For example, Nurses focuses on the desired outcome rather than just fixing as end of life situation. Which ultimately gives a permeant and long-term solution instead of surface symptoms treatment. Moreover, Nurses focuses on the desired outcome rather than just fixing as end of life situation. As a result, nurses must spend a lot of time gathering data. Nurses chooses lived experience with the patient . It will enable them to practice their profession more intuitively and helps them treat their patient in a more effective way. This theory enables and helps the nurses to evaluate and tackle the problem positively rather “fix” the problem. Nurses exhibit higher efficiency by focusing on the goal of treatment rather than just treating the patients.
There are many Barriers in using the theory in practice , which posses great challenge for the practitioners (Imogene King: Theory of Goal Attainment (Study Guide), 2014). One of the main barrier is the stress, which is a specifically work load stress and metal exudation. This challenge can be overcome by motivating both patients and nurses by giving motivational lectures and conferences as well as deceasing the work load on practitioner by hiring more staff. Another challenge nurses can face is the Time management. This is another barrier which greatly affects the performance of the practitioner. This barrier can be overcome by applying multiple strategies at a time to save time and space and training the nurses to manage time wisely and strategically on critical cases first and then the regular patients

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

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Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing
Next is the Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing. The diagram represents the Symbol and framework of theory

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Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing
It describes a dynamic, interpersonal relationship in which a patient grows and develops to attain certain life goals.
It explains that factors which can affect the attainment of goals are roles, stress, space, and time
Goal attainment is the process through which human and other resources are mobilized for the attainment of collective goals and purposes
The theory suggests that nurses work with patients to achieve a mutually agreed upon health goal
According to the theory :
Humans are holistic beings that are in constant interaction with their environment
The environment is defined as conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect humans development
Health is defined as the state where humans can continually adapt to stimuli.
Nurses assess the patient’s behaviours for adaptation, promote positive adaptation by enhancing environment interactions and helping patients

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

(Smith, et al, 2020)
Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing is a popular nursing theory that aims to explain or describe the resource of nursing science. Sister Callista Roy’s model considers the person to be a collection of interconnected systems that keep a healthy equilibrium between diverse stimuli. Roy’s model incorporates ideas from Harry Helson’s adaptation-level theory of perception, Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s system model, and Anatol Rapoport’s system definition. It describes a dynamic, interpersonal relationship in which a patient grows and develops to attain certain life goals. It explains that factors which can affect the attainment of goals are roles, stress, space, and time. Goal attainment is the process through which human and other resources are mobilized for the attainment of collective goals and purposes The theory suggests that nurses work with patients to achieve a mutually agreed upon health goal. According to the theory, Humans are holistic beings that are in constant interaction with their environment. The environment is defined as conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect humans development . Health is defined as the state where humans can continually adapt to stimuli. Nurses assess the patient’s behaviours for adaptation, promote positive adaptation by enhancing environment interactions and helping patients.

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Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing Examples:
It ensures the achievement of our goal i.e. the treatment of patient.
It helps the nurses to focus on the treatment rather treating minor symptoms
It enable the nurses to better use the resources in a most efficient manner to treat the patients
Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory includes :
It ensures that problem solution is according to patient perspective rather than just fixing the problem
It helps the patients to be more health lived and motivated towards the treatment
Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

(Smith, et al., 2020)
Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing ) is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them includes are given in the presentation. For example, It ensures the achievement of our goal i.e. the treatment of patient. It will cure the disorder permanently . It helps the nurses to focus on the treatment rather treating minor symptoms and their plan of cation constantly changes according to the ever changing situation of the disease It enable the nurses to better use the resources in a most efficient manner to treat the patients and thus giving them a more elaborative and adaptative response to disorders
There are many Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory. For example , It ensures that problem solution is according to patient perspective rather than just fixing the problem. It helps them to focus on the treatment rather treating minor symptoms and their plan of cation constantly changes according to the ever changing situation of the disease. It helps the patients to be more health lived and motivated towards the treatment as they are treated as human beings instead of any test subject or case study for the practitioners. They will take more interest in getting treatment. Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory. . Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory

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JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

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Nursing Satisfactions due to theory includes :
Nurses focuses on the desired outcome by adapting the ever changing health situation
Nurses chooses adaptive nursing care models according to the changing conditions
Nurses exhibit true presence by focusing on each patients changing environment
Barriers for using the theory in practice includes:
financial crises is the main barrier and it can be removed by more funding towards the goal
Less adaptive nurses are the other challenge and can be overcome by their training in different types of scenarios

There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. For example, Nurses focuses on the desired outcome by adapting the ever changing health situation and increase the exposure of the disorder treatment by getting random and rare situations created by adaptivity of the pathogen and environmental adaptability. . Moreover, Nurses chooses adaptive nursing care models according to the changing conditions . This will help them to better understand the standard biomedical models and applying them by customizing for each patient and each scenario. Nurses exhibit true presence by focusing on each patients changing environment. This increases the abilities of nurses and increase the work efficiency
There are many Barriers in using the theory in practice which hinders in way of practitioners to use this theory in their common practice. One of the most important barrier is the financial crises. This can be removed by funding more towards the infrastructure and environment of the hospitals which will enables the nurses to provide a cleaner and healthier environment to the patients . Less adaptive nurses are the other challenge and can be overcome by their training in different types of scenarios . This can be done by giving simulated case studies and dummy situations task where they have to assess the correct nursing plan

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Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory
Next is the Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory. The diagram represents the Symbol and framework of theory

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JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory
It explains comfort as a fundamental need of all human beings for relief, ease, or transcendence arising from health care situations that are stressful
It addresses the four elements of nursing metaparadigm including human, health, environment and nursing
Patients/ Humans can be considered as individuals, families, institutions, or communities in need of health care
Health is considered to be optimal functioning, as defined by the patient, group, family or community
Environment is any aspect of the patient, family, or institutional surroundings that can be manipulated by a nurse(s), or loved one(s) to enhance comfort.
Nursing is described as the process of assessing the patient’s comfort needs, developing and implementing appropriate nursing interventions, and evaluating patient comfort following nursing interventions.
(Smith, et al.2020
In Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory, Kolcaba explained that comfort can take three different forms: alleviation, ease, and transcendence. When a patient’s individual comfort needs are addressed, the patient feels relieved. For example, a patient taking pain medicine as part of their post-operative care is experiencing comfort and relief. In a contented mood, ease addresses comfort. For instance, the patient’s worries are allayed. The term “transcendence” refers to a comfortable state in which patients are able to overcome their problems. Patient comfort can occur in four different ways: physically, psychologically, environmentally, and sociocultural. Patients/ Humans can be considered as individuals, families, institutions, or communities in need of health care Health is considered to be optimal functioning, as defined by the patient, group, family or community Environment is any aspect of the patient, family, or institutional surroundings that can be manipulated by a nurse(s), or loved one(s) to enhance comfort. Nursing is described as the process of assessing the patient’s comfort needs, developing and implementing appropriate nursing interventions, and evaluating patient comfort following nursing interventions. It explains comfort as a fundamental need of all human beings for relief, ease, or transcendence arising from health care situations that are stressful It addresses the four elements of nursing metaparadigm including human, health, environment and nursing.
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Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory Examples:
Theory can be applied on patients suffering from symptoms related to the discomfort from cardiac syndromes (Krinsky et al., 2014)
Katharine Kolcaba’s nursing theory can be applied on post operative child admitted in PICU (Awal, 2017).
This can also be used in the clinical nursing care of new mothers (Lima et al., 2017).
Positive Patients Outcomes:
It ensures that problem is fixed as well as comfort of the patient is also considered.
It helps the patients to be more motivated and comfortable with the way of treatment
Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory is widely applicable in many aspects of nursing practice. Some of them includes are given in the presentation. For example, Theory can be applied on patients suffering from symptoms related to the discomfort from cardiac syndromes. These type of patients needs comfort more than the treatment itself. (Krinsky et al., 2014). Katharine Kolcaba’s nursing theory can be applied on post operative child admitted in PICU as children needs more attention rather than other patients and can be treated effectively if comfort is provided to them (Awal, 2017). This can also be used in the clinical nursing care of new mothers. These women needs more attention and comfort as compared to normal women as they faces a completely new situation (Lima et al., 2017).
There are many Positive Patients Outcomes of the theory. For example , It ensures that problem is fixed as well as comfort of the patient is also considered, which helps them to recover fast and efficiently . It helps the patients to be more motivated and comfortable with the way of treatment. Comfort theory helps the nurses to focus on giving more comfort and emotional support Patient’s quality of life increases as a whole after the treatment based on the theory

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JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

Continue…
Nursing Satisfactions:
Nurses formulate customized treatment intervention according to the patient comfort, hence increasing the efficiency of work
Nurses select those biomedical standards that are applicable in practice and facilitate nursing activities
Nurses exhibit true presence through comforting the patient thus providing physical as well as mental satisfaction
Barriers for using the theory in practice
Inappropriate nursing plan is a barrier which can be overcome by training nurses about creating proper nursing plans which also includes the comfort point of view
Another barrier is lack of confidence which can be removed by increasing nurse client communication.
There are many Nursing Satisfactions which are possible due to theory. For example, Nurses formulate customized treatment intervention according to the patient comfort, hence increasing the efficiency of work. Nurses select those biomedical standards that are applicable in practice and facilitate nursing activities . Moreover, Nurses exhibit true presence through comforting the patient thus providing physical as well as mental satisfaction which leads to an efficient work load management and a better treatment strategy without any mental stress on both the parties
There are many Barriers in using the theory in practice which hinders in way of practitioners to use this theory in their common practice. One of the most important barrier is the Inappropriate nursing plan. This could give stress to the patient and nurse as well , as it will become hard to treat patient in a comfortable way rather hostile way will be used. This barrier can be overcome by training nurses about creating proper nursing plans which also includes the comfort point of view. Another barrier is lack of confidence of both parties on each other leading to discomfort and increased anxiety which can be removed by increasing nurse client communication.

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References

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection


Application of Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM). (2020). Currentnursing.com. https://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Roy%27s_adaptation_model.html
Application of a Theory-Goal Attainment Theory. (2020). NursingAnswers.net. https://nursinganswers.net/essays/application-of-a-theory-goal-attainment-theory.php
Araújo, S., Silva, D., Moreira, M, Almeida, D., Freitas, D., Guedes, C. (2018). Nursing care to patients with diabetes based on King’s Theory. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, Article 71, 1092-1098.
Awal, A. (2017). Application of Katharine Kolcaba comfort theory to nursing care of patient. Int J Sci Res Publ [Internet], Article 7(3), 104-7.
Imogene King: Theory of Goal Attainment (Study Guide). (2014, October 13). Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/imogene-m-kings-theory-goal-attainment/#:~:text=The%20factors%20that%20affect%20the,stress%2C%20space%2C%20and%20time.&text=There%20are%20three%20interacting%20systems,system%20is%20given%20different%20concepts.

References


Krinsky, R., Murillo, I., & Johnson, J. (2014). A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba’s comfort theory to cardiac patients. Applied Nursing Research, Article 27(2), 147–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2014.02.004
Lima, F, Guedes, C, Silva, D., Freitas, D., Fialho, M. (2017). Usefulness of the comfort theory in the clinical nursing care of new mothers: critical analysis. Revista gaucha de enfermagem, Article 37.
Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Theory. (2019, September 10). Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/madeleine-leininger-transcultural-nursing-theory/#:~:text=Through%20Leininger’s%20theory%2C%20nurses%20can,his%20or%20her%20cultural%20background.

JMRY 8 Module 8 Theories of the 1980’s and 1990’s Self-Reflection

References


Maier-Lorentz, M. M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: Its importance in nursing practice. Journal of cultural diversity,Article 15(1), 37-43.
Rahim, S. (2013). Clinical application of Nightingale’s environmental theory. i-manager’s Journal on Nursing, Article 3(1), 43.
ŞAYIK, D., AÇIKGÖZ, A., & Yiğit, D. The Use of Orlando’s Interaction Theory in Nursing Care Practice: Celiac Disease. Pediatric Practice and Research, Article 7(Ek), 259-263
Smith, M., Gullet, D. (2020). Nursing theories and nursing practice 5th ed. FA. Davis Philadelphia Company.

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