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JMRY 8- Module 3_ Johnson, Orlando, and the 1950’s to 1960’s_

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

OBJECTIVES

Discuss Ida Orlando’s deliberative nursing process theory.
Describe Susan’s feelings and actions regarding her father.
Identify Orlando’s nurse process theory regarding Susan ‘s caregiver position.
Describe Sam’s feelings and actions regarding living alone.
Identify Orlando’s nurse process theory regarding Sam’s living alone.
Describe a family plan from Orlando’s model for Susan and Sam.
Describe the culture, social, economic struggles of the 1950s in the U.S.
Describe the culture, social, economic struggles of the 1960s in the U.S.
Explain nursing fashion, job duties, responsibilities, society views of the 1950s.
Explain nursing fashion, job duties, responsibilities, society views of the 1960s.
Discuss the most influential nursing theory in the 1950s.
Discuss the most influential nursing theory in the 1960s.

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

ORLANDO’S DELIBERATIVE NURSING PROCESS THEORY
Ida Jean Orlando was nurse theorist who developed her deliberative nursing theory off her own nursing experiences with patient during the 1950s-60s.
Orlando described her theory as based on the interaction between the nurse and a patient at a specific time and place.
Orlando viewed each patient as different and nursing actions are individualized to the patient’s needs.
Orlando emphasized patient individuality and how powerful the nurse-patient connection can develop.
(Pinto, 2017)
(Smith, 2020)

ORLANDO’S THREE ELEMENTS OF A NURSING ENCOUNTER


The behavior of the patient

The reaction of the nurse

The nurse action taken to benefit the patient
(Smith, 2020)

ORLANDO’S FIVE INTERRELATED CONCEPTS


Organizing principle=focus on the patient’s immediate needs.

Presenting behavior= patient’s behavior they are unable to resolve on their own.

Immediate reaction= internal response from the nurse, A) perceiving and interpreting the patient’s behavior B) patient’s autonomic thought process C) patient’s autonomic thoughts bring about autonomic feelings.

Reflective inquiry=nurse reflection on patient’s behavior A)assessment B)diagnosis C)planning D)implementation E)evaluation.

Improvement= patient needs are met with effective patient behavior.
(Smith, 2020)

ORLANDO’S NURSE THEORY BASED ON SUSAN


The 3 nursing elements
Susan is agitated and nervous
Nurse reaction is comforting and understanding
Nurses’ observations are to undertake an action to assist Susan with caring for her father
The 5 nurse concepts

Nurse organizes meeting with Susan to understand her immediate needs.
Nurse observes distress in Susan’s behavior when talking about meeting her fathers care needs.
The nurse feels the stress and strain that Susan is undertaking care of her father and own family.
The nurse reflects on Susan’s plight using the five stages of the nursing process.
As the nurse visits openly & calmly with Susan to figure out a solution to her dilemma.

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

(Wolf, 2018)

The 5 nurse concepts
Nurse organizes a meeting with Sam to understand his immediate needs.
Nurse observes a flat affect in Sam’s behavior when talking about his needs.
The nurse feels the sadness and heartache in Sam’s reserved mannerism with the mention of needing assistance.
The nurse reflects on Sam’s situation using the five stages of the nursing process.
As the nurse visits openly & calmly with Sam to draw out his remorseful attitude and determine his needs.

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s


ORLANDO’S NURSE THEORY BASED ON SAM


The 3 nursing elements

Sam is quiet and withdrawn
Nurse reaction is accepting and concerned
The nurse action is to delve into Sam’s sadness and self preservation
(Wolf, 2018)

ORLANDO’S FAMILY PLAN OF CARE


The nurse addresses Susan’s need for assistance in providing care for Sam by contacting the local Area on Aging office to arrange The Senior Care Act caregivers to visit routinely and complete household tasks, meal preparation, shopping, and companionship.
The nurse discusses free hospice workshops on “loss of loved ones” that Susan & Sam can attend bi-weekly to address the grief and loss they both are experiencing over the death of her/his mother/spouse .
The nurse arranges home health aide through Medicare insurance to assist with Sam’s bathing, hygiene and grooming needs.
The nurse provides contacts to local senior citizens group to assist Sam with financial planning and to auto-enroll in monthly bill payments, and yard upkeep.

(Feo, 2017)

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

ORLANDO’S FAMILY PLAN OF CARE


The nurse contacts the lighthouse for the blind to assist with setting up Sam’s home for safety and placing tactile markers and vison aids so he can locate buttons on microwave, telephone, and television.
The nurse schedules a visit for Sam to see his primary care physician to assure he isn’t having medical concerns for his memory or lacking in vitamins, minerals or fluids or experiencing depression.
The nurse will take up setting up Sam’s medications in med boxes and conversing with the private sitter to remind him to take them daily.

CULTURE, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC STRUGGLES OF THE 1950S

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s


The 1950s was a thriving time. The unemployment rate was low, people could afford to buy homes and automobiles due to the stable economy.
The 1950s were socially unstable due to the civil rights movement on racial injustice and desegregation.
The 1950s brought an 18% increase of women into the workforce.
In the 1950s the government created budgets to expand social welfare programs such as housing assistance and food stamps.
The government also dedicated a significant amount of money to the construction of highways and airports.
To fund these budgets and projects, taxes, especially income taxes, continued to rise steadily during this decade.
(Lee, 2021)

CULTURE, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC STRUGGLES OF THE 1960S IN THE U.S


The 1960s saw big changes in political and social arenas. Citizens were taking action in governmental activities such as voting, anti-war demonstrations.
The 1960s the Vietnam War was declared by President Johnson after Kennedys assassination.
In the 1960s African-Americans were busy challenging the government for equal rights without segregation.
With the influx of women working outside the home men were up in arms about this new social order with managing the home and the children.
Women’s liberation and the introduction of the birth control pill granted women power to make child-bearing decisions.

(Lee, 2020)

NURSING IN THE 1950S


Nurse education was growing with enrollment numbers climbing
End of segregated colleges with culture mixed classes
Nurses had limited medicines, equipment and vaccines
Hierarchy reigned according to nurse seniority
Wages and job selection was stagnant

(Lee, 2020)

NURSING IN THE 1960S


Nurses were expected to stand up when a doctor entered the room.
Average RN salary was $5,200
Nurses began to collec­tively action and bargain in the political arenas and through legisla­tive actions.
There were approximately 2 million nurses nationally during this time.
Associate degree nurse programs were increasing across the country.

(Lee, 2020)

NURSING 1950’S VS 1960’S


1950’s Nurse
Could earn a diploma in nursing after 3 years working in hospital- based training that included strict rules and requirements.
Nursing jobs centered around hospitals
Nurses were all women who worked long hours without labor regulations

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

1960’s Nurse
Could earn an Associate degree in nursing by attending college classes with more self governance.
Wages and benefits were much improved.
Culture and ethnics were more varied in nurse graduates
(Lee, 2020)

THE MOST INFLUENTIAL NURSING THEORY IN THE 1950S


Hildegard Peplau was a pioneer in psychiatric nursing.
In 1952 she wrote Interpersonal Relations in Nursing theory.
Peplau psychiatric nurse teaching were widely accepted and thus increased the number of nurse interest in that field of care.
Peplau taught that patients were subjects not objects and the nurse should participate and engage in their care.
(Smith, 2020)

THE MOST INFLUENTIAL NURSING THEORY IN THE 1960S.


Virginia Henderson wrote the Nature of Nursing in 1966.

Henderson believed nursing was a unique role and a valuable contribution to healthcare.

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

Her nurse theory instilled 14 components of need that the patient requires for a supportive environment.

Henderson was a dedicated nurse researcher and published multiple nursing books.

(Smith, 2020)

REFERENCES

Feo, R., Rasmussen, P., Wiechula, R., Conroy, T., & Kitson, A. (2017). Developing effective and caring nurse-patient relationships. Nursing Standard, Article 31(28), 54. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns.2017.e10735

Pinto, A. C., Garanhani, M. L., de França, T. E., & Pierotti, I. (2017). The concept of the human being in nursing theories: establishing a relationship with the teaching of the human condition. Pro-Posições, Article 28, 88-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-6248-2015-0164

JMRY 8 Module 3 Johnson Orlando and the 1950’s to 1960’s

Smith, M., Gullett, D., (2020). Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice (5th ed). F.A. Davis Company

Lee,M. (2021). Social climate of the 1950-60s in America. The Classroom. https://www.theclassroom.com/social-climate-1960s-america-22162.html

Wolf, L. A., Perhats, C., Delao, A. M., Clark, P. R., Moon, M. D., & Kathleen, E. Z. (2018). Assessing for occult suicidality at triage: experiences of emergency nurses: JEN. Journal of Emergency Nursing, Article 44(5), 491-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2018.01.013

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