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BUS 3040 Unit 10 Human Resource Management Final Project Part 3

Global HR

In the global context, organizations with International operations face unique challenges and opportunities in managing their human resources. Expanding into foreign markets presents the potential for accessing millions or billions of new customers, tapping into new markets, and diversifying revenue streams. Additionally, operating in foreign countries can offer cost advantages, such as lower labor costs, enhancing competitiveness and profitability.

Global HR management entails developing strategies and practices that effectively address the complexities of international operations. Organizations operating globally may have employees who are citizens of multiple countries, representing parent countries, host countries, or third countries. 

Parent-country nationals are employees born in the country where the organization’s headquarters are located. Host-country nationals are employees from the countries where the organization operates facilities. Third-country nationals are employees from neither parent nor host countries, often working in third-country facilities.

BUS 3040 Unit 10 Human Resource Management Final Project Part 3

Employees hired to work in a combination of these countries are called expatriates. Expatriates are assigned to work in foreign countries and require specific support and management practices to ensure their successful adaptation and performance in their host countries. 

Managing expatriates involves addressing cultural differences, providing necessary training and support, addressing legal and regulatory requirements, and facilitating their integration into the host-country work environment.

Organizations expanding internationally may adopt various approaches, such as becoming international, multinational, or global organizations. An international organization establishes new facilities in one or more foreign countries to serve local markets. Multinational organizations create facilities in different countries to leverage production and distribution efficiencies. 

In contrast, a global organization locates specific types of facilities based on the ability to effectively and efficiently produce products or services while leveraging cultural differences as a competitive advantage. A transnational HRM system, characterized by a global perspective and input from managers of diverse cultural backgrounds, is crucial for managing human resources in international organizations.

When operating in multiple countries, organizations must consider several key factors. As mentioned, culture shapes work practices, employee behavior, and management approaches. Understanding cultural nuances and adapting HR practices can promote effective communication, collaboration, and employee engagement across diverse cultural contexts.

BUS 3040 Unit 10 Human Resource Management Final Project Part 3

Education systems differ across countries, affecting the availability and quality of skilled labor. Organizations must adapt talent management strategies to address varying educational opportunities and align employee skills with job requirements. Economic systems, such as capitalist or socialist systems, affect HR practices. These systems influence factors such as compensation structures, education accessibility, and employee benefits, which impact workforce dynamics and organizational strategies.

Political-legal systems, encompassing government laws and regulations, also shape HR management practices. Laws governing employment practices, such as training, compensation, hiring, firing, and layoffs, differ across countries, requiring organizations to comply with local regulations. Legal frameworks related to antidiscrimination, diversity, and inclusion vary, highlighting the importance of understanding and adhering to legal requirements in each jurisdiction.

Successfully managing global HR requires a deep understanding of the cultural, legal, economic, and political contexts in which organizations operate. It necessitates the development of HR strategies that promote cross-cultural understanding, respect for local laws, and the establishment of effective communication channels. By embracing the complexities and opportunities presented by global HR, organizations can foster inclusive workplaces, build strong employee relations, and navigate the intricacies of operating in a global marketplace.

BUS 3040 Unit 10 Human Resource Management Final Project Part 3

In the United States, equal employment and fair labor are highly valued, leading to the establishment of federal laws that regulate employer actions to prevent unfair treatment. However, not all countries are committed to ensuring equal rights in the workplace. 

In Egypt, for example, women face significant challenges in attaining equal rights and opportunities for decent employment. Despite ranking 120 out of 128 countries in gender equality according to the World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report, the situation for women in Egypt may be deteriorating. While the government sector has shown more support for women, the country’s economy has shifted towards the private sector, where women encounter more significant obstacles.

Unemployment rates for women between the ages of 15 and 29 in Egypt are approximately 32 percent, compared to 12 percent for men in the same age group (El-Naggar, 2010). Alongside employment struggles, women also endure the issue of sexual harassment. A study conducted by UN Women in 2013 revealed that 99.3 percent of Egyptian women surveyed admitted to experiencing sexual harassment, with 85 percent reporting that no witnesses intervened to help (Halime, 2013). 

BUS 3040 Unit 10 Human Resource Management Final Project Part 3

These circumstances require extra precautions and considerations for women from other countries who may be considering working in a country with such conditions, potentially leading them to decline job offers due to safety concerns.

Human resource managers are crucial in preparing employees for cross-cultural work experiences, particularly those from different countries or preparing to work abroad. It is essential to provide them with the necessary training and cultural awareness to navigate foreign environments successfully. Human resource management faces the challenges of effectively compensating employees and managing their performance, which is particularly significant for expatriates.

Expatriates are managers sent to foreign countries to oversee business operations. When their assignments conclude, they undergo repatriation to return home. This process can be emotionally challenging for expatriates, as they may be unaware of the changes in their native country during their absence. It becomes the employer’s responsibility to communicate and update them on the developments in their home country. It is also beneficial for expatriates to maintain contact with individuals within the company and industry to stay connected and informed.

Human resource management extends beyond the hiring and firing employees; it encompasses a broader range of responsibilities. Companies increasingly recognize the importance of an effective human resource management department. According to Noe et al. (2014), organizations experience peak performance when effective human resource management practices exist. Employee and customer satisfaction levels are higher, companies become more innovative, productivity increases, and a positive reputation is built within the community.


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