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BIOS 255 Week 5 Case Study Hypersensitivity Reactions

Manuel’s Experience with Hypersensitivity Reaction

Manuel is experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction, which is an intense and abnormal reaction of the immune system to an antigen. In this case, the antigen is bee venom, which caused Manuel to develop hives within minutes of being stung. Hypersensitivity reactions can be classified into four types based on the immune system components involved, and the timing and nature of the reaction.

Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions

Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate reaction mediated by IgE antibodies. These antibodies are produced in response to allergens such as pollen, animal dander, insect bites, dust mites, or certain foods. When the allergen enters the body, it triggers the production of IgE antibodies, which bind to the surface of mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. The symptoms of type I hypersensitivity can range from mild to severe and may include hives, itching, nasal congestion, coughing, wheezing, and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of type I hypersensitivity, characterized by widespread vasodilation, circulatory shock, and sometimes sudden death.

BIOS 255 Week 5 Case Study Hypersensitivity Reactions

Type II hypersensitivity is a cytotoxic reaction mediated by IgG or IgM antibodies. These antibodies recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of cells, activating the complement system and leading to cell damage or destruction. Type II hypersensitivity can occur in autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune neutropenia, Goodpasture syndrome, Graves’ disease, and Myasthenia gravis.

Type III hypersensitivity is an immune complex reaction that occurs when IgM and IgG antibodies form complexes with antigens. These immune complexes can then activate the complement system and cause tissue damage. Type III hypersensitivity can lead to conditions such as Lupus, Serum sickness, and Arthus reaction.

Type IV hypersensitivity is a delayed reaction mediated by T cells. In this type of reaction, T cells recognize antigens on the surface of cells and release cytokines, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Type IV hypersensitivity can be seen in long-term infectious diseases like Tuberculosis and Fungal Infections.

Manuel’s Hypersensitivity Reaction

Based on the symptoms Manuel experienced after being stung by a bee, it is likely that he is experiencing a type I hypersensitivity reaction. The development of hives within minutes of being stung is a common symptom of type I hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, bee venom can enter the bloodstream, making it a likely cause of a type I reaction.

Treatment of Hypersensitivity Reactions

The treatment of hypersensitivity reactions depends on the severity of the reaction and the type of hypersensitivity involved. For type I hypersensitivity reactions, the first-line treatment is epinephrine, which is a vasoconstrictor that reduces mucosal edema and overall swelling due to allergic reactions. Epinephrine also helps alleviate airway restriction, preventing hypotension and shock. Other treatments for type I hypersensitivity reactions include antihistamines and corticosteroids.

BIOS 255 Week 5 Case Study Hypersensitivity Reactions

For type II and III hypersensitivity reactions, the treatment is focused on the underlying autoimmune disease or infection causing the reaction. In some cases, immunosuppressive drugs may be used to reduce the immune response.

For type IV hypersensitivity reactions, the treatment is focused on controlling the underlying infection or inflammation causing the reaction. This may include antibiotics, antifungal agents, or anti-inflammatory drugs.

Conclusion

Hypersensitivity reactions are abnormal and intense reactions of the immune system to an antigen. These reactions can be classified into four types based on the immune system components involved, and the timing and nature of the reaction.

Reference:

John P. Cunha, D. O. (2020, November 2). What are the four types of allergic reactions?eMedicineHealth. Retrieved February 6, 2022, from

https://www.emedicinehealth.com/what_are_the_4_types_of_allergic_reactions/article_em.htm#wha are_the_4_types_of_allergic_reactions

Insect stings (Bee Sting, Spider Bites) information: Myvmc. HealthEngine Blog. (2005,October 5). Retrieved February 6, 2022, from

https://healthinfo.healthengine.com.au/insect-stings-bee-sting-spider-bites

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