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BIOS 252 Week 6 Case Study

Introduction

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a metabolic disorder that causes disruptions in insulin secretion, which is critical for regulating glucose levels in our bodies. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the body to use glucose from food for energy. When insulin secretion is disrupted, the body’s ability to regulate glucose levels is compromised, leading to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia.

BIOS 252 Week 6 Case Study

Hyperglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels exceed 125 mg/dL, while hypoglycemia happens when blood glucose levels drop below 70 mg/dL. Both conditions can be dangerous if not managed properly. Hyperglycemia can cause a range of symptoms, including lethargy, blurred vision, slurred speech, ketoacidosis, and even diabetic coma. Hypoglycemia can lead to loss of consciousness, cognitive impairment, and other neurological problems.

To manage diabetes effectively, it’s essential to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and keep them within a healthy range. This requires a combination of medication, lifestyle changes, and careful monitoring of diet and exercise. Patients with diabetes should work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized treatment plan that meets their unique needs and preferences.

BIOS 252 Week 6 Case Study

One crucial aspect of diabetes management is understanding the patient’s medical history. Certain medical conditions and medications can affect blood glucose levels, making it more challenging to manage diabetes effectively. For example, some medications used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease can increase blood glucose levels. Understanding the patient’s medical history can help healthcare providers develop a more effective treatment plan that takes these factors into account.

When blood glucose levels drop too low, it can cause hypoglycemia, a condition that can be dangerous if left untreated. The nervous system primarily relies on glucose and oxygen as its source of energy, and it requires a constant supply to function correctly. Any disruption to this supply can cause significant impairment to neural functions, such as loss of consciousness and cognitive tasks. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can cause seizures or coma. Patients with diabetes should monitor their blood glucose levels regularly and take steps to prevent hypoglycemia, such as eating small, frequent meals throughout the day, and carrying snacks or glucose tablets to raise blood sugar levels if needed.

Hyperglycemia occurs when the body cannot metabolize sugar properly, leading to an excess amount in the bloodstream. In healthy individuals, the kidney reabsorbs glucose back into the bloodstream while eliminating waste through urine, thereby regulating blood sugar levels. However, in diabetic patients, glucose reabsorption occurs at a slower rate due to the buildup of glucose in the bloodstream. This results in a cascade effect where glucose and ketones remain in the tubules, causing osmotic diuresis, a condition where diabetic patients urinate excessively to eliminate waste. They can pass up to 10 to 15 liters of urine per day. Inadequate hydration can cause dehydration and loss of consciousness in hyperglycemic patients.

BIOS 252 Week 6 Case Study

To manage hyperglycemia, healthcare providers may prescribe medications such as insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, which help the body regulate blood glucose levels. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, can also help manage hyperglycemia. Patients with diabetes should work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes these factors into account.

In the absence of insulin to regulate blood glucose and create energy for the body, it turns to fat as an alternative source. This process results in a buildup of acids known as ketones, which can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetics who are unable to control their glycemic levels may exhibit a sweet-rotten smell due to this byproduct.

Reference

Mathew, P., & Thoppil, D. (2021). Hypoglycemia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534841/

Mouri, M.I., & Badireddy, M. (2022). Hyperglycemia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430900/

Saladin, K. S. (2020). Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US). Sapra, A., & Bhandari, P. (2022). Diabetes Mellitus.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551501/

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