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BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Homework: Patient Case Study Profiles - Cancer Causes

Patient Profile – Cancer Causes

Mary

She is a healthy 64-year-old female.
At age 20, she gave birth to her first kid.
As a 58-year-old, she had menopause.
Due to the onset of menopause, she began taking estrogen replacement treatment (for about 6 years).
Since she went through menopause, she has put on weight.
Her mother was 37 when she was revealed she had breast cancer.
When she was 13, she got her first menstruation.

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Homework: Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes

Breast Cancer Risks Associated with Mary:

According to the information, Mary has a high chance of getting diagnosed with breast cancer in the coming years. According to Łukasiewicz et al. (2021), women with a close relative who have a history of cancer, do possess double chances of getting cancer. According to the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool, the information given indicates that she has a 3.1% chance of developing invasive breast cancer in the next five years. Additionally, the risk estimator revealed that her lifetime risk of cancer is 12.1%, which is higher than the average of 8.1% for women living in the US.

Mary’s Recommendation:

Mary can continue with the estrogen replacement treatment, as this can reduce the risk of getting breast cancer (Manyonda et al., 2022)
Even though Mary is at a greater risk of getting breast cancer due to her family history (Łukasiewicz et al., 2021), but she should not get herself stressed.
Mary should be aware that obesity increases the risk of developing breast cancer.Mary should avoid alcohol and stay active to minimize the risk of being overweight (Godinho-Mota et al., 2019).
She must consume high-fiber and healthy food and stay active to manage weight, as being overweight increases the chances of getting breast cancer (Lee et al., 2019).
She should also get herself checked every 40 days to avoid any uncertainty of breast cancer.

Paula

At age 71, she has cancer in her urinary bladder that has spread to her ovaries and may have spread to one lymphatic vessels.
When she was 13, she got her first menstruation.
It’s been three years since Paula’s sister was first treated with breast cancer, and another two and a half years after she was told she had ovarian cancer.
Paula’s mother passed away from lung cancer.
Two paternal uncles passed away from pancreatic cancer.
Myeloma was a disease that affected her aunt on her mother’s side.
Cancer of the uterus has struck her maternal grandma.
During genetic testing, a BRCA1 mutation was discovered in Paula’s sister.

Breast Cancer Risks Associated with Paula:

According to the provided information of Paula, she has a high chance of getting breast cancer in the near future, as one of her close relatives (her sister) has been diagnosed with breast cancer (Łukasiewicz et al., 2021).
The estimated risk for developing invasive breast cancer over the next five years, as per the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool, is 8.3%, which is higher than 2.1%. Furthermore, the risk estimator showed that her lifetime risk of cancer is 18.2% higher than the average woman residing in the US, which is 5.1%.

Paula’s Recommendation:

Four of her close relatives of Paula, including her sister, mother, and aunt, had cancer, so she needs to be super vigilant about her health.
Paula must also get herself checked through diagnostic screening process. This screening is essential for the validation of evolving causes of breast cancer as her sister has BRCA1 so she has a high risk of getting breast cancer (Nañez et al., 2022).
Paula should undergo chemotherapy to treat her bladder cancer (Mar & Dayyani, 2019).

June

June has reached the ripe old age of 58.
She has been getting mammograms on a “regular” basis (at two- to three-year intervals).
Her menstrual cycle began when she was 13 years old.
At age 27, she had her first of two pregnancies, both of which resulted in healthy children.
At the age of 51, she went through menopause. Although she did not utilize HRT, she did use oral contraceptives for a total of four years.
Both her blood pressure and cholesterol levels are rather high. Insufficient amounts of thyroid hormone are present in her system.
Her bones are quite fragile.
Her aunt on her mother’s side deceased in her thirties from breast cancer.
At the age of 39, her mom passed away from a brain tumor.
Her 84-year-old father is still active and healthy.

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Homework: Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes

Breast Cancer Risks Associated with June:

According to the provided information, June has a 2.6% chance of developing breast cancer in the future five years compared to the average risk of 1.7% at her age,e which is 58. In the case of lifetime risk analysis, according to the National Institute of Health, she has a 14.6% chance of breast cancer which is higher than the average of 9.5%.

June’s Recommendation:

Based on her present condition, June should regularly get herself checked along with the mammograms, as due to her history of oral contraceptives, she has a 7% increased chance of getting breast cancer (Bardaweel et al., 2019).
She has higher chances of developing breast cancer because her thyroid functioning is pretty slow (Baldini et al., 2022).
To control her hypertension and cholesterol level, she should benefit from the DASH eating plan (Suri et al., 2019).
In order to combat osteoporosis, she should take a healthy diet, containing Calcium and other minerals, as her bones are brittle (Shahida et al., 2021).

Nora

She’s 51 years old and still hasn’t hit menopause.
She has had no abnormalities detected on any of her mammograms.
She had her first menstruation when she was 13 years old.
She gave birth to her first kid at age 32, and she has since given birth twice more.
For six years, she relied on oral contraception
No hormone replacement treatment has been used on her (HRT).
For the first 26 years of her life, she was a smoker.
There are between one and four alcoholic beverages in her weekly consumption.
As a 48-year-old, her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer; she now has lymphoma (at age 72).
Cancer of the breast struck her paternal grandmother at age 47, and she died away from lung cancer.
Her first-cousin on her father’s side is now battling breast cancer.
One of her uncles passed away “at an early age” from breast cancer.
Her Ashkenazi Jewish father passed away at age 66 from colon cancer.

Breast Cancer Risks Associated with Nora:

The risk estimator tool for breast cancers depicted that Nora has a 3 % chance of developing cancer in the next 5 years while the average value is 1.3% for an average woman in a similar age group. The risk estimator also highlighted results regarding lifetime chances of cancer which was 23.8% higher than the average woman residing in the US at 11%.

Nora’s Recommendation:

Nora must get checked with the BRCA1 diagnostic test to check whether she has a genetic condition, as her mother got breast cancer at age 48 (Nañez et al., 2022).
Nora’s exclusive permutation of hereditary and external environmental factors explains that she is more likely to develop breast cancer. In her early life, she had a history of smoking for 26 years. Additionally, her mother had a history of breast cancer and alcohol consumption, which puts her at a higher risk for developing the disease.
She should avoid alcohol to minimize cancer risk (Godinho-Mota et al., 2019).
Moreover, she has a high risk of getting breast cancer, as having first pregnancy and childbirth at increased age that is more than 25-27, is linked with a greater chance of breast cancer (Aurin et al., 2020).
Moreover, because of her history of oral contraception for six years, she has a 7% increased chance of getting breast cancer (Bardaweel et al., 2019), so she must get a regular examination to avoid any consequences.
To avoid the risk of cancer, it is important for her to include fiber-rich foods and isoflavones in her diet. These foods contain bioactive components that can help in preventing the development of cancer (Sahin et al., 2019).

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Homework: Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes

References

Aurin, J., Thorlacius, H., & Butt, S. T. (2020). Age at first childbirth and breast cancer survival: a prospective cohort study. BMC Research Notes13(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4864-1 

Baldini, E., Lauro, A., Tripodi, D., Pironi, D., Amabile, M. I., Ferent, I. C., Lori, E., Gagliardi, F., Bellini, M. I., Forte, F., Pacini, P., Cantisani, V., D’Andrea, V., Sorrenti, S., & Ulisse, S. (2022). Thyroid diseases and breast cancer. Journal of Personalized Medicine12(2), 156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12020156 

Bardaweel, S. K., Akour, A. A., Al-Muhaissen, S., AlSalamat, H. A., & Ammar, K. (2019). Oral contraceptive and breast cancer: Do benefits outweigh the risks? A case–control study from Jordan. BMC Women’s Health19(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0770-x 

Godinho-Mota, J. C. M., Gonçalves, L. V., Mota, J. F., Soares, L. R., Schincaglia, R. M., Martins, K. A., & Freitas-Junior, R. (2019). Sedentary behavior and alcohol consumption increase breast cancer risk regardless of menopausal status: A case-control study. Nutrients11(8).
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081871 

Lee, K., Kruper, L., Dieli-Conwright, C. M., & Mortimer, J. E. (2019). The impact of obesity on breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Current Oncology Reports21(5). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-019-0787-1 

Łukasiewicz, S., Czeczelewski, M., Forma, A., Baj, J., Sitarz, R., & Stanisławek, A. (2021). Breast Cancer—epidemiology, risk factors, classification, prognostic markers, and current treatment strategies—An Updated Review. Cancers13(17), 4287. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174287 

Manyonda, I., Sinai Talaulikar, V., Pirhadi, R., Ward, J., Banerjee, D., & Onwude, J. (2022). Could perimenopausal estrogen prevent breast cancer? Exploring the differential effects of estrogen-only versus combined Hormone Replacement Therapy. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research14(1), 1–7.
https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4646 

Nañez, A., Stram, D. A., Bethan Powell, C., & Garcia, C. (2022). Breast cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers after diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer is lower than in carriers without ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology Reports39, 100899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2021.100899 

Sahin, I., Bilir, B., Ali, S., Sahin, K., & Kucuk, O. (2019). Soy isoflavones in integrative oncology: Increased efficacy and decreased toxicity of cancer therapy. Integrative Cancer Therapies18, 153473541983531.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735419835310 

Shahida, S., Rehman, S., Ilyas, N., Khan, M. I., Hameed, U., Hafeez, M., Iqbal, S., Elboughdiri, N., Ghernaout, D., Salih, A. A., & Matouq, M. (2021). Determination of blood calcium and lead concentrations in osteoporotic and osteopenic patients in Pakistan. ACS Omega6(42), 28373–28378.
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c04565 

Suri, S., Kumar, V., Kumar, S., Goyal, A., Tanwar, B., Kaur, J., & Kaur, J. (2019). DASH dietary pattern: A treatment for non-communicable diseases. Current Hypertension Reviews15.
https://doi.org/10.2174/1573402115666191007144608

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