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BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Homework: Urinary Lab

Homework: Urinary Lab

The urinary analysis, also known as urinalysis, examines urine. It is performed to determine the issues of the urinary tract, stomach, kidney, or any morbidities caused by hypertension or diabetes. (Mayo Clinic, 2019). In this article, I will discuss the purpose and importance of urinary analysis consequences of not getting an analysis done. Types of different types of diabetes and the approaches used for the management of each type of diabetes. In addition, what are the reasons and consequences of urinary blood traces, and will analyze the consequences of the condition.  

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Homework: Urinary Lab

Purpose and Importance of Urinary Analysis

Urinalysis is the proper examination of urine. A urine analysis is part of a routine medical examination performed for the health assessment process and to test whether the patient has developed some disease or not. When the patient explains some symptoms such as painful urination, blood in urine, diabetes, kidney issue, liver issue, or other urinary issues such as pregnancy tests, a urinalysis may be required (Mayo Clinic, 2021). A urinalysis can assist in determining the origin of specific symptoms and indications of diseases pertaining to the symptoms. 

A urine analysis can be performed in three ways. A physical examination of the urine is used to determine its color, volume, and density to assess any infection or disease. The second method is a chemical examination to pinpoint the pH, blood cells, nitrites, proteins, glucose, ketone bodies, urobilinogen, leukocyte esterase, and bilirubin. The third method is a microscopic exam to identify microorganisms, cells, and crystals in the urine (Milani & Jialal, 2021). The samples from urine analysis can be used to analyze more than 220 diseases (Zhang et al., 2022). In consequence, if a urinary analysis is not performed it can make the diseases unidentified which can lead to diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal or heart failure. 

Diabetes and its Types 

Diabetes is a severe and persistent health condition that significantly affects the patient’s life. It is mainly categorized by the malfunctioning of insulin when the body cannot adequately use the insulin, the pancreas generates or when the pancreas does not create enough insulin (World Health Organization, 2022).  Diabetes is a significant contributor to renal failure, heart attacks, strokes, blindness, and lower limb amputation (World Health Organization, 2022). There are two main types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (Saeedi et al., 2019). Diabetes type 1 is categorized by malfunctioning insulin-producing cells in the body. The symptoms include excessive excretion of urine, increased thirst and hunger, sudden weight loss, blurry vision, and increased fatigue (Lawrence et al., 2021). Type 2 diabetes is the inefficient utilization of insulin by the body, primarily carried on by increased body weight and an inactive lifestyle. Despite being frequently less severe, the symptoms of type 2 diabetes might be comparable to those of type 1. As a result, the condition may not be discovered until after it leads to other major healthcare problems (Norris et al., 2020).  

Management of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong disease that can be managed by adequate medication and self–management techniques. Diabetes 1 can be managed by taking insulin to control blood sugar or gene therapy, including beta cell replacement therapy. Moreover, diabetes 2 can be managed by maintaining optimum body weight, maintaining blood pressure, having an active lifestyle, eating healthy and nutritious food and some insulin medicines (Tan et al., 2019). 

Reasons for Blood in Urine 

Blood in the urine can be caused by the weakening of kidney blood vessels due to hyperglycemia. The kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, and blood arteries are among the numerous essential organs that suffer chronic morbidity, dysfunction, and collapse due to hyperglycemia (Abebe et al., 2019). The traces of blood cells in the urine can point to the additional causes of kidney disease, ureter, or prostrate disease (American Diabetes Association, 2021) and can lead to vision loss, cardiovascular dysfunctions, or limb ulcers (Abebe et al., 2019). 

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Homework: Urinary Lab

Patients Results 

Anna is a 62 years old patient who lives in Houston. She visited the hospital in the outpatient department of the kidney center due to a complaint of high blood pressure and kidney pain. Her medical history shows she has been affected by type 2 diabetes and hypertension for the last 18 years. The recent issue escalated when she felt painful and frequent urination.  The nephrologist prescribed an ultrasound of the kidneys, ureters, and urine bladder both pre- and post-void. In addition, a complete urinalysis is recommended.  

According to the reports, the bladder’s walls were seen as normal. Pre- and post-void volumes were 684 and 152 ml, respectively, and the urinary bladder was free of masses or calculi. The left kidney’s cortical thickness was 2.0 cm, and its size was 10.2 cm. A straightforward cyst measuring 1.2 cm in the lower pole was visible. Simple kidney cysts often don’t need to be treated, although they can occasionally restrict urine flow and cause problems with normal urination. The kidney is swollen due to the cysts, but it can lead to future kidney malfunction if not appropriately treated, this can lead to hypertension or even renal failure. 

Urinalysis Result

Patient name: Anne Hathway

Test performed: Urineanylsis

Test

Level

pH 

5.8

Urea

27

Creatinine 

1.6

Bilirubin 

8.1

Urobilinogen 

4.2

The levels indicate that the liver and kidneys are at high stake of failure. As the level of  Urobilinogen and Creatinine are increased.

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Homework: Urinary Lab

References

Abebe, M., Adane, T., Kefyalew, K., Munduno, T., Fasil, A., Biadgo, B., Ambachew, S., & Shahnawaz, S. (2019). Variation of urine parameters among diabetic patients: A cross- sectional study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i1.9 

American Diabetes Association. (2021). 11. Chronic kidney disease and risk management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care, 45(Supplement_1), S175–S184. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-s011 

Lawrence, J. M., Divers, J., Isom, S., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Pihoker, C., Marcovina, S. M., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Hamman, R. F., Dolan, L., Dabelea, D., Pettitt, D. J., & Liese, A. D. (2021). trends in prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in the US, 2001-2017. JAMA, 326(8), 717. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.11165 

Mayo Clinic. (2021, October 14). Urinalysis – Mayo Clinic. Www.mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907#:~:text=It 

Milani, D. A. Q., & Jialal, I. (2021, May 9). Urinalysis. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557685/ 

Norris, J. M., Johnson, R. K., & Stene, L. C. (2020). Type 1 diabetes—early life origins and changing epidemiology. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(3), 226–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(19)30412-7 

Saeedi, P., Petersohn, I., Salpea, P., Malanda, B., Karuranga, S., Unwin, N., Colagiuri, S., Guariguata, L., Motala, A. A., Ogurtsova, K., Shaw, J. E., Bright, D., & Williams, R. (2019). Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th Edition. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 157(157), 107843. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107843 

Tan, S. Y., Mei Wong, J. L., Sim, Y. J., Wong, S. S., Mohamed Elhassan, S. A., Tan, S. H., Ling Lim, G. P., Rong Tay, N. W., Annan, N. C., Bhattamisra, S. K., & Candasamy, M. (2019). Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A review on current treatment approach and gene therapy as potential intervention. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 13(1), 364–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.10.008 

World Health Organization. (2022, September 16). Diabetes. World Health Organisation; WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes 

Zhang, Z., Liu, J., Cheng, Y., Chen, J., Zhao, H., & Ren, X. (2022). Urine analysis has a very broad prospect in the future. Frontiers in Analytical Science, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/frans.2021.812301 

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