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BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Homework: Neuromuscular Lab

Homework: Neuromuscular Lab

Neuromuscular Lab focuses on improving pain caused by peripheral nerve injuries and their effects, including neuromas, as well as the functional neural control of prosthetic limbs. Peripheral nerves can regenerate, in contrast to central nervous system neural cells.

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Homework: Neuromuscular Lab

The research and study of how that process works and how to create novel technologies and surgical techniques to enhance patient outcomes after peripheral nerve damage is included in research and work done by Neuromuscular Labs (University of Michigan DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY RESEARCH, 2019). This article will discuss eye exams and the consequences of not getting eye exams. In addition, 

Eye Exam 

A comprehensive eye exam includes a series of tests designed to assess your eyesight and look for eye conditions. An eye doctor may ask you to look through various lenses, use various tools, and shine strong lights in your eyes. Several aspects of vision or eye health are assessed using various tests during an eye exam. The American Academy of Ophthalmology advises obtaining a complete eye exam at age 40 when vision abnormalities and eye disorders are likely to occur if a person is healthy and shows no signs of vision issues. An eye doctor can advise you on how frequently you should have future eye exams based on your test findings. 

A person needs to get their eyes tested every year or two if their age is 60 years or older, If they use contact lenses or glasses, have a history of vision loss, or have a genetic eye illness in the family own a chronic condition, such as diabetes, that increases the risk of developing eye illness or use any medications that have adverse side effects on the eyes. The types of tests that can be done for the proper eye examination are eye muscle tests, visual equity tests, and refraction assessments, to name a few (Mayo Clinic, 2019). 

Examining the eyes can help prevent or limit the damage caused by some eye problems. More than 75 percent of sight loss and blindness is avoidable by treatment or lifestyle modifications (Toli et al., 2021). Mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) transporter insufficiencies are the recent cause of neuromuscular malfunctioning, which is reported to cause a neuro-myopathic phenotype (Al Shamsi et al., 2021). 

Why are Reflexes Measured During the Diagnostic Exam

Diagnostic eye exams often include measuring reflexes because reflex testing can provide valuable information for localizing the source of neuromuscular disease. This information cannot be obtained through other means such as clinical neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigations, making reflex testing an important tool in accurate bedside diagnosis.In addition, Healthcare staff must be able to diagnose patients as the disease becomes less common. (Palmer et al., 2020) . 

Consequences 

On the other hand, if reflexes are not measured during the eye diagnostic exams, it can lead to unidentified infections and diseases. Furthermore, it can be a risk to getting the prompt treatment done, thus creating a barrier to rectifying eye issues that can even be a cause of brain injuries (Stuart et al., 2020).

Patient Examinations

Patient 1

Elena

Age: 36

Complaint: The patient was having  red eye and pain

  •  Blood Pressure Test:

The blood pressure measured was 140/90 mm Hg. 140/90 mm Hg is considered as intense high blood pressure by World Health Organization. While it is also recommended to keep the blood pressure in the range below 120/80 mmHg

  • Past ocular history 

Similar episodes have been faced before as well.

  •  Eye Test:

A visual refractory axis was examined from the cornea to the fundus of the eye. The patient was then diagnosed with reduced vision.

  •  Possible Resolution:

It was advised to avoid further morbidity mishaps by avoiding high beam lights such as sunlight and significant traffic light.

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Homework: Neuromuscular Lab

Patient 2

Manav Dutt

Age: 45

Complaint: The patient complained about the blurred vision that was followed by frequent headache

  • Past-ocular and Medical History: 

Hypertension and chain smoking similar episodes have also been reported in the past.

  •  Blood Pressure Test:

The blood pressure measured was 140/90 mm Hg. 140/90 mm Hg is considered intense high blood pressure. It shows the signs of hypertension. It is recommended to start medications to control blood pressure below 120/80 mmHg is recommended. He is also advised to stop smoking and get some significant lifestyle modifications.

  •  Eye Test:

A complete conjunctiva and cornea examination was performed. In addition, the slit lamp and X-ray were done as the blurred vision was initially not just due to hypertension. 

  • Possible Resolution:

After a proper examination, it was diagnosed that it is partial blindness due to chemical injury caused by high-dose medications and smoking. Immediate intervention is required in this case. The patient is referred to an expert ophthalmologist immediately.

Patient 3

Spencer Hogle

Age: 36

Occupation: Factory worker

Complaint: The patient was brought to the hospital due to eye bleeding.

  • Past-ocular and Medical History: 

It has never been reported that he has faced any similar issue in the past.

  •  Blood Pressure Test:

The blood pressure measured was 113/80 mm Hg, which is low due to intense bleeding.

  •  Eye Test:

A complete conjunctiva and cornea examination was performed. In addition, the palpebral fissures were checked, and the fornices were swept during the initial exam. 

  • Possible Resolution:

The eye examination diagnosed that the eye was damaged due to the reaction of a corrosive chemical metal in the eye. Pieces of the metal were found in the eye that damaged the cornea. An expert ophthalmologist is required immediately to perform surgery.

Conclusion 

An eye exam includes several eye tests that inquire into the conditions of any such issue. Some of the tests are eye muscle tests, visual equity tests, and refraction evaluations. Moreover, eye reflexes are measured because of neuromuscular disease, reflex testing aids in correct diagnosis by giving localizing diagnostic data that cannot be obtained by any other means. On the other hand, if eye examination is not performed on time, it can lead to unidentified eye issues and delay the treatment of those issues.

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Homework: Neuromuscular Lab

References

Al Shamsi, B., Al Murshedi, F., Al Habsi, A., & Al-Thihli, K. (2021). Hypoketotic hypoglycemia without neuromuscular complications in patients with SLC25A32 deficiency. European Journal of Human Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00995-7 

Mayo Clinic. (2019). Eye exam – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/eye-exam/about/pac-20384655 

Palmer, J. J., Jones, C., Surur, E. I., & Kelly, A. H. (2020). Understanding the role of the diagnostic “Reflex” in the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 5(2), 52. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020052 

Stuart, S., Parrington, L., Martini, D., Peterka, R., Chesnutt, J., & King, L. (2020). The measurement of eye movements in mild traumatic brain injury: A structured review of an emerging area. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00005 

Toli, A., Perente, A., & Labiris, G. (2021). Evaluation of the red reflex: An overview for the pediatrician. World Journal of Methodology, 11(5), 263–277. https://doi.org/10.5662/wjm.v11.i5.263 

University of Michigan department of surgery research. (2019). Neuromuscular Lab | Surgery Research | Michigan Medicine. Surgery Research. https://medicine.umich.edu/dept/surgery-research/research-strengths/musculoskeletal-regenerative-medicine/neuromuscular-lab 

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